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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Kinds and spectrum of mutations induced by 1-nitrosopyrene adducts during plasmid replication in human cells.

1-Nitropyrene has been shown in bacterial assays to be the principal mutagenic agent in diesel emission particulates. It has also been shown to be mutagenic in human fibroblasts and carcinogenic in animals. To investigate the kinds of mutations induced by this carcinogen and compare them with those induced by a structurally related carcinogen, (+/-)-7 beta,8 alpha-dihydroxy-9 alpha,10 alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetra-hydrobenzo [a]pyrene (BPDE) (J.-L. Yang, V. M. Maher, and J. J. McCormick, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:3787-3791, 1987), we treated a shuttle vector with tritiated 1-nitrosopyrene (1-NOP), a carcinogenic mutagenic intermediate metabolite of 1-nitropyrene which forms the same DNA adduct as the parent compound, and introduced the plasmids into a human embryonic kidney cell line, 293, for DNA replication to take place. The treated plasmid, pZ189, carrying a bacterial suppressor tRNA target gene, supF, was allowed 48 h to replicate in the human cells. Progeny plasmids were then rescued, purified, and introduced into bacteria carrying an amber mutation in the beta-galactosidase gene in order to detect those carrying mutations in the supF gene. The frequency of mutants increased in direct proportion to the number of DNA-1-NOP adducts formed per plasmid. At the highest level of adduct formation tested, the frequency of supF mutants was 26 times higher than the background frequency of 1.4 X 10(-4). DNA sequencing of 60 unequivocally independent mutant derived from 1-NOP-treated plasmids indicated that 80% contained a single base substitution, 5% had two base substitutions, 4% had small insertions or deletions (1 or 2 base pairs), and 11% showed a deletion or insertion of 4 or more base pairs. Sequence data from 25 supF mutants derived from untreated plasmids showed that 64% contained deletions of 4 or more base pairs. The majority (83%) of the base substitution in mutants from 1-NOP-treated plasmids were transversions, with 73% of these being G . C --> T . A. This is very similar to what we found previously in this system, using BPDE, but each carcinogen produced its own spectrum of mutations. Of the five hot spots for base substitution mutations produced in the supF gene with 1-NOP, two were the same as seen with BPDE-treated plasmids. However, the three other hot spots were cold spots for BPDE-treated plasmids. Conversely, four of the other five hot spots seen with BPDE-treated plasmids were cold spots for 1-NOP-treated plasmids. Comparison of the two carcinogens for the frequency of supF mutants induced per DNA adduct showed that 1-NOP-induced adducts were 3.8 times less than BPDE adducts. However, the 293 cell excised 1-NOP-induced adducts faster than BPDE adducts.[1]


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