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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Yeast regulatory gene GAL3: carbon regulation; UASGal elements in common with GAL1, GAL2, GAL7, GAL10, GAL80, and MEL1; encoded protein strikingly similar to yeast and Escherichia coli galactokinases.

GAL3 gene expression is required for rapid GAL4-mediated galactose induction of the galactose-melibiose regulon genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we show by Northern (RNA) blot analysis that GAL3 gene expression is itself galactose inducible. Like the GAL1, GAL7, GAL10, and MEL1 genes, the GAL3 gene is severely glucose repressed. Like the MEL1 gene, but in contrast to the GAL1, GAL7, and GAL10 genes, GAL3 is expressed at readily detectable basal levels in cells grown in noninducing, nonrepressing media. We determined the sequence of the S. cerevisiae GAL3 gene and its 5'-noncoding region. Within the 5'-noncoding region of the GAL3 gene, we found two sequences similar to the UASGal elements of the other galactose-melibiose regulon genes. Deletion analysis indicated that only the most ATG proximal of these sequences is required for GAL3 expression. The coding region of GAL3 consists of a 1,275-base-pair open reading frame in the direction of transcription. A comparison of the deduced 425-amino-acid sequence with the protein data bank revealed three regions of striking similarity between the GAL3 protein and the GAL1-specified galactokinase of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis. One of these regions also showed striking similarity to sequences within the galactokinase protein of Escherichia coli. On the basis of these protein sequence similarities, we propose that the GAL3 protein binds a molecule identical to or structurally related to one of the substrates or products of the galactokinase-catalyzed reaction.[1]


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