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Gene Review

GAL10  -  bifunctional UDP-glucose 4...

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: Bifunctional protein GAL10, YBR019C, YBR0301
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Disease relevance of GAL10

  • Expression of the LAC9 gene from the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis in HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells efficiently induced luciferase expression from reporter plasmids containing the four LAC9 binding sites from the K. lactis GAL1-GAL10 gene linked to a basal promoter [1].
  • Retron Ec67 from E. coli, which is responsible for the production of msDNA-Ec67, was cloned under the GAL10 promoter in a 2-microns-based plasmid. msDNA thus produced was detected by extending the 3' end of the msDNA by avian myeloblastosis virus RT [2].
  • We have expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae a full-length poliovirus cDNA clone under the control of the GAL10 promoter to better characterize the effect of poliovirus on host cell metabolism [3].
  • Staphylococcus aureus nuclease A hybrid genes, encoding proteins OmpA-nuclease, lipo-nuclease and Pin-nuclease, were cloned downstream of the yeast GAL10 inducible promoter [4].

High impact information on GAL10

  • The NUP1 protein is essential for cell viability, and overexpression from the yeast GAL10 promoter prevents further cell growth [5].
  • Examination of the linking number distributions of plasmids bearing the inducible promoters of GAL1 and GAL10 genes indicates that the generation of supercoiled domains of opposite signs is related to transcription [6].
  • Substitution of the UASc with the UAS of the yeast GAL10 gene results in activation of the normal set of CYC1 transcripts [7].
  • The synthesis of heat-shock-inducible HSP26 mRNA and galactose-inducible GAL7 and GAL10 mRNAs is also drastically inhibited in the rad3-ts mutant at the restrictive temperature [8].
  • These results, combined with those of earlier studies, suggest the possibility that GAL4 normally induces transcription of GAL1 and GAL10 by blocking the activity of these negative control elements, in addition to stimulating transcription by a mechanism of positive control [9].

Biological context of GAL10

  • We have identified the promoter region of the GAL10 gene (whose product is UDP-galactose epimerase) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae; this promoter mediates galactose induction of transcription in conjunction with the product of the GAL4 regulatory gene [10].
  • The induction kinetics and final accumulation of the chromosomal GAL10 mRNA were also affected by the presence of multiple copies of the GAL7 gene; these results are consistent with a model involving limiting amounts of regulatory factors [11].
  • Transcriptional termination of the GAL10 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on the efficiency of polyadenylation [12].
  • We found that the GAL10-based reporter gene showed a much stronger SWI-SNF dependence than did the CYC1-lacZ reporter with several different activators [13].
  • The most notable feature of the nucleotide sequence of this region is a 108-base-pair guanine-plus-cytosine-rich stretch of DNA located approximately in the middle of the region between GAL1 and GAL10 [14].

Anatomical context of GAL10


Associations of GAL10 with chemical compounds

  • When the chromosomal GAL80 gene in wild-type yeast was replaced with the hybrid gene, the uninduced level, but not the induced level, of the GAL10-encoded enzyme (uridine diphosphoglucose-4-epimerase) was significantly increased [17].
  • Poly(A) signals control both transcriptional termination and initiation between the tandem GAL10 and GAL7 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae [18].
  • Such double disruptions can be rescued by GAL1, 10-induced expression of the Drosophila alpha and beta subunits (Dm alpha+beta) together or by GAL10-induced expression of the Drosophila alpha subunit (Dm alpha) alone (Padmanabha, R., Chen-Wu, J. L.-P., Hanna, D. E., and Glover, C. V. C. (1990) Mol. Cell. Biol. 10, 4089-4099) [19].
  • In this paper we report the design of a yeast expression vector called pPH3 which includes the GAL1-GAL10 promoter, multiple cloning sites, the URA3 selectable marker, the 2 mu sequences and the ampicillin-resistance gene [20].
  • Human and Candida albicans CYP51 were purified to homogeneity after GAL10-based heterologous expression in yeast in order to resolve the basis for the selective inhibition of the fungal enzyme over the human orthologue by the azole drugs ketoconazole and itraconazole, used in the treatment of systemic fungal infection [21].

Physical interactions of GAL10


Regulatory relationships of GAL10

  • The S.pombe ypt2 gene under control of the S.cerevisiae GAL10 promoter is able to suppress the temperature-sensitive phenotype of a S. cerevisiae sec4 mutant, indicating a functional similarity of these GTP-binding proteins from the two very distantly related yeasts [23].
  • By constructing strains in which CHC1 expression is regulated by the GAL10 promoter, we demonstrate that the lethal alleles of SCD1 and CDL1 are recessive [24].
  • A gratuitous strain was developed by disrupting the GAL1 gene (galactokinase) of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae harboring the antithrombotic hirudin gene in the chromosome under the control of the GAL10 promoter [25].
  • Overexpression of CDC42 under control of the GAL10 promoter was not grossly deleterious to cell growth but did perturb the normal pattern of selection of budding sites [26].
  • The mouse ypt1 protein with 71% of identical residues compared with the yeast Ypt1 protein could functionally fully replace its yeast homologue as long as the mouse gene was overexpressed under transcriptional control of the inducible GAL10 promoter [27].

Other interactions of GAL10

  • We show by the following series of experiments that the yeast positive regulatory protein GAL4 binds to four sites in the upstream activating sequence UASG to activate transcription of the adjacent GAL1 and GAL10 genes [28].
  • Thus, the picture of the GAL10 promoter that emerges is one of an upstream activation site that responds to the GAL4 product plus galactose, and a region of transcription initiation that may contain sequences that mediate glucose repression [10].
  • Experiments employing strains inducible (GAL80) or constitutive (gal80) for GAL10 expression indicate that an additional component of glucose repression is inducer exclusion [10].
  • Cells lacking the GAL10-encoded UDP-galactose-UDP-glucose epimerase retained the constitutivity response to overproduction of GAL3, making it unlikely that constitutivity is due to endogenously produced galactose [29].
  • The results suggest that the gal1 Delta hxk2 Delta strain would be useful for the large-scale production of heterologous proteins from the GAL10 promoter in S. cerevisiae [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GAL10


  1. Highly efficient transactivation by the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis transcription factor LAC9 and its inhibition by the negative regulator GAL80 in mammalian cells. Schulz, W.A., Ebling, B., Hasse, A., Zenke, F., Breunig, K. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. In vivo production of a stable single-stranded cDNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by means of a bacterial retron. Miyata, S., Ohshima, A., Inouye, S., Inouye, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Yeast cells are incapable of translating RNAs containing the poliovirus 5' untranslated region: evidence for a translational inhibitor. Coward, P., Dasgupta, A. J. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression and secretion of staphylococcal nuclease in yeast: effects of amino-terminal sequences. Pines, O., London, A. J. Gen. Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. The NUP1 gene encodes an essential component of the yeast nuclear pore complex. Davis, L.I., Fink, G.R. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Supercoiling of intracellular DNA can occur in eukaryotic cells. Giaever, G.N., Wang, J.C. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Heme regulates transcription of the CYC1 gene of S. cerevisiae via an upstream activation site. Guarente, L., Mason, T. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. DNA repair gene RAD3 of S. cerevisiae is essential for transcription by RNA polymerase II. Guzder, S.N., Qiu, H., Sommers, C.H., Sung, P., Prakash, L., Prakash, S. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. GAL1-GAL10 divergent promoter region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains negative control elements in addition to functionally separate and possibly overlapping upstream activating sequences. West, R.W., Chen, S.M., Putz, H., Butler, G., Banerjee, M. Genes Dev. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. A GAL10-CYC1 hybrid yeast promoter identifies the GAL4 regulatory region as an upstream site. Guarente, L., Yocum, R.R., Gifford, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GAL7 gene on autonomous plasmids. Baker, S.M., Okkema, P.G., Jaehning, J.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Balancing transcriptional interference and initiation on the GAL7 promoter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Greger, I.H., Aranda, A., Proudfoot, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. SWI-SNF complex participation in transcriptional activation at a step subsequent to activator binding. Ryan, M.P., Jones, R., Morse, R.H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Sequences that regulate the divergent GAL1-GAL10 promoter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Johnston, M., Davis, R.W. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. GAL4/GAL80-dependent nucleosome disruption/deposition on the upstream regions of the yeast GAL1-10 and GAL80 genes. Lohr, D., Lopez, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Inducible overexpression of the FUM1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: localization of fumarase and efficient fumaric acid bioconversion to L-malic acid. Peleg, Y., Rokem, J.S., Goldberg, I., Pines, O. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Autogenous regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulatory gene GAL80. Igarashi, M., Segawa, T., Nogi, Y., Suzuki, Y., Fukasawa, T. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Poly(A) signals control both transcriptional termination and initiation between the tandem GAL10 and GAL7 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Greger, I.H., Proudfoot, N.J. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Purification and characterization of casein kinase II (CKII) from delta cka1 delta cka2 Saccharomyces cerevisiae rescued by Drosophila CKII subunits. The free catalytic subunit of casein kinase II is not toxic in vivo. Bidwai, A.P., Hanna, D.E., Glover, C.V. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Synthesis of human coagulation factor XIII in yeast. Jagadeeswaran, P., Reddy, S.V., Haas, P. Gene (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Characteristics of the heterologously expressed human lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase (other names: P45014DM, CYP51, P45051) and inhibition of the purified human and Candida albicans CYP51 with azole antifungal agents. Lamb, D.C., Kelly, D.E., Waterman, M.R., Stromstedt, M., Rozman, D., Kelly, S.L. Yeast (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. A region flanking the GAL7 gene and a binding site for GAL4 protein as upstream activating sequences in yeast. Lorch, Y., Kornberg, R.D. J. Mol. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. Structural and functional analysis of ypt2, an essential ras-related gene in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe encoding a Sec4 protein homologue. Haubruck, H., Engelke, U., Mertins, P., Gallwitz, D. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Viability of clathrin heavy-chain-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae is compromised by mutations at numerous loci: implications for the suppression hypothesis. Munn, A.L., Silveira, L., Elgort, M., Payne, G.S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Production of antithrombotic hirudin in GAL1-disrupted Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kim, M.D., Lee, T.H., Lim, H.K., Seo, J.H. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Molecular characterization of CDC42, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene involved in the development of cell polarity. Johnson, D.I., Pringle, J.R. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. The ras-related mouse ypt1 protein can functionally replace the YPT1 gene product in yeast. Haubruck, H., Prange, R., Vorgias, C., Gallwitz, D. EMBO J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. Specific DNA binding of GAL4, a positive regulatory protein of yeast. Giniger, E., Varnum, S.M., Ptashne, M. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. Overproduction of the GAL1 or GAL3 protein causes galactose-independent activation of the GAL4 protein: evidence for a new model of induction for the yeast GAL/MEL regulon. Bhat, P.J., Hopper, J.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae gal1 Delta and gal1 Delta hxk2 Delta mutants expressing recombinant proteins from the GAL promoter. Kang, H.A., Kang, W.K., Go, S.M., Rezaee, A., Krishna, S.H., Rhee, S.K., Kim, J.Y. Biotechnol. Bioeng. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Structure of RNA polymerase II promoters. Coordinate conformational alteration of the upstream activator of the TATA- and RNA-initiation sequences under moderate torsional stress. Camilloni, G., Della Seta, F., Negri, R., Di Mauro, E. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  32. Efficient expression and Zn(II)-dependent structure of the DNA binding domain of the yeast GAL4 protein. Serikawa, Y., Shirakawa, M., Matsuo, H., Kyogoku, Y. Protein Eng. (1990) [Pubmed]
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