The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

GAL2  -  Gal2p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: Galactose permease, Galactose transporter, IMP1, L9449.6, YLR081W
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of GAL2


High impact information on GAL2

  • Together these data suggest that, at least for GAL2, nascent messenger ribonucleoprotein does not play a major role in gene anchoring and that the early recruitment of Mex67p contributes to gene repositioning by virtue of an RNA-independent process [3].
  • Interestingly, a mutant GAL2 gene lacking the coding region is still able to recruit Mex67p upon transcriptional activation and to relocate to the nuclear periphery [3].
  • Gal4p S699 phosphorylation is necessary for sensitive response to inducer, and its requirement for GAL induction can be abrogated by high concentrations of galactose in strains expressing wild-type GAL2 and GAL3 [4].
  • Galactose transport has only one natural substrate, D-galactose, and is encoded by the gene GAL2 [5].
  • The PUT1 gene was mapped distal to the GAL2 gene on chromosome XII by tetrad analysis [6].

Biological context of GAL2


Anatomical context of GAL2


Associations of GAL2 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of GAL2

  • Gal4 transcriptional activator protein binds to the two consensus UAS sites whether GAL2 expression is induced, uninduced, or repressed by growth with different carbon sources [11].

Other interactions of GAL2

  • The Hxt2-GFP fusion protein is a functional hexose transporter: it restored growth on glucose to a strain bearing null mutations in the hexose transporter genes GAL2 and HXT1 to HXT7 [17].
  • An analysis of the fate of Gal2p in cells overexpressing wild-type ubiquitin as well as its variants incompetent to form polyubiquitin chains showed that monoubiquitination of Gal2p is sufficient to signal internalization of the protein into the endocytic pathway [12].
  • In a yeast strain deleted for HXT1-17, GAL2, AGT1, YDL247w and YJR160c, glucose consumption and transport activity were completely abolished [18].
  • This sequence is found in the centromere DNA element I (CDEI) of yeast centromeres and upstream from a number of transcription units including MET25, GAL2 and TRP1 [19].
  • It is well established, however, that glucose induces internalization of Gal2p into the endocytotic pathway and its subsequent proteolysis in the vacuole, whereas FBPase is targeted to the 26 S proteasome for proteolysis under similar inactivation conditions [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GAL2

  • Subcellular fractionation and indirect immunofluorescence showed that the Gal2 transporter accumulates in the vacuole of the mutant cells, directly demonstrating that its degradation requires vacuolar proteolysis [15].


  1. Isolation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae centromere DNA-binding protein, its human homolog, and its possible role as a transcription factor. Bram, R.J., Kornberg, R.D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. A modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that consumes L-Arabinose and produces ethanol. Becker, J., Boles, E. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Cotranscriptional recruitment to the mRNA export receptor mex67p contributes to nuclear pore anchoring of activated genes. Dieppois, G., Iglesias, N., Stutz, F. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Multiple signals regulate GAL transcription in yeast. Rohde, J.R., Trinh, J., Sadowski, I. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Sugar transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Lagunas, R. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Proline utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: analysis of the cloned PUT1 gene. Wang, S.S., Brandriss, M.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. GAL2 codes for a membrane-bound subunit of the galactose permease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tschopp, J.F., Emr, S.D., Field, C., Schekman, R. J. Bacteriol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. The yeast IMP1 gene is allelic to GAL2. Ulery, T.L., Mangus, D.A., Jaehning, J.A. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. The Regulatory Roles of the Galactose Permease and Kinase in the Induction Response of the GAL Network in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hawkins, K.M., Smolke, C.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Glucose transport in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. I. Properties of an inducible low-affinity glucose transporter gene. Wésolowski-Louvel, M., Goffrini, P., Ferrero, I., Fukuhara, H. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Gal4 protein binding is required but not sufficient for derepression and induction of GAL2 expression. Huibregtse, J.M., Good, P.D., Marczynski, G.T., Jaehning, J.A., Engelke, D.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Glucose-induced monoubiquitination of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae galactose transporter is sufficient to signal its internalization. Horak, J., Wolf, D.H. J. Bacteriol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Characterization of the effectiveness of hexose transporters for transporting xylose during glucose and xylose co-fermentation by a recombinant Saccharomyces yeast. Sedlak, M., Ho, N.W. Yeast (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. IMP1/imp1: a gene involved in the nucleo-mitochondrial control of galactose fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Algeri, A.A., Bianchi, L., Viola, A.M., Puglisi, P.P., Marmiroli, N. Genetics (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. Catabolite inactivation of the galactose transporter in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: ubiquitination, endocytosis, and degradation in the vacuole. Horak, J., Wolf, D.H. J. Bacteriol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Yeast inositol mono- and trisphosphate levels are modulated by inositol monophosphatase activity and nutrients. Navarro-Aviñó, J.P., Bellés, J.M., Serrano, R. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Functional expression, quantification and cellular localization of the Hxt2 hexose transporter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae tagged with the green fluorescent protein. Kruckeberg, A.L., Ye, L., Berden, J.A., van Dam, K. Biochem. J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Concurrent knock-out of at least 20 transporter genes is required to block uptake of hexoses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Wieczorke, R., Krampe, S., Weierstall, T., Freidel, K., Hollenberg, C.P., Boles, E. FEBS Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. DNA binding of CPF1 is required for optimal centromere function but not for maintaining methionine prototrophy in yeast. Mellor, J., Rathjen, J., Jiang, W., Barnes, C.A., Dowell, S.J. Nucleic Acids Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Two distinct proteolytic systems responsible for glucose-induced degradation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and the Gal2p transporter in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae share the same protein components of the glucose signaling pathway. Horak, J., Regelmann, J., Wolf, D.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities