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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Enhanced expression of TGF-beta and c-fos mRNAs in the growth plates of developing human long bones.

The expression of mRNAs for type I and type II procollagens, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and c-fos was studied in developing human long bones by Northern blotting and in situ hybridization. The cells producing bone and cartilage matrix were identified by hybridizations using cDNA probes for types I and II collagen, respectively. Northern blotting revealed that the highest levels of TGF-beta mRNA were associated with the growth plates. By in situ hybridization, this mRNA was localized predominantly in the osteoblasts and osteoclasts of the developing bone, in periosteal fibroblasts and in individual bone marrow cells. These findings are consistent with the view that TGF-beta may have a role in stimulation of type I collagen production and bone formation. Only a low level of TGF-beta mRNA was detected in cartilage where type II collagen mRNA is abundant. In Northern hybridization, the highest levels of c-fos mRNA were detected in epiphyseal cartilage. In situ hybridization revealed two cell types with high levels of c-fos expression: the chondrocytes bordering the joint space and the osteoclasts of developing bone. These differential expression patterns suggest specific roles for TGF-beta and c-fos in osseochondral development.[1]


  1. Enhanced expression of TGF-beta and c-fos mRNAs in the growth plates of developing human long bones. Sandberg, M., Vuorio, T., Hirvonen, H., Alitalo, K., Vuorio, E. Development (1988) [Pubmed]
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