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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Comparative study of various immunomodulators for macrophage and natural killer cell activation and antiviral efficacy against exotic RNA viruses.

Several immunomodulators were compared for immunomodulatory and antiviral activity in B6C3F1 female mice. Our results demonstrate that murine recombinant gamma interferon (rIFN-G), human recombinant alpha A/D interferon (rIFN-A), ampligen (a polyribonucleotide) and CL246,738 modulate nonspecific immunity and are effective antiviral agents in vivo. Administration of each of these agents 1 day before cell harvest induced high levels of splenic natural killer (NK) cell activity against YAC-1 target cells. rIFN-G was also a potent activator of peritoneal macrophages (M phi), as evidenced by high levels of antitumor activity and changes in ectoenzyme phenotype that is characteristic of tumoricidal M phi. rIFN-A, ampligen and CL246,738 induced moderate to low levels of M phi activation by these criteria. In vivo protection experiments showed that repeated therapeutic treatment with rIFN-A protected mice against i.p. infection with Venezuelan equine encephalitis (an alpha togavirus, VEE), Banzi (a flavivirus) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Similar treatment with rIFN-G was effective against VEE and HSV-2, but ineffective against Banzi virus. A single prophylactic i.p. dose of ampligen 1 day before virus challenge was very effective against Banzi virus, moderately effective against HSV-2, and ineffective against VEE and Caraparu (a bunyavirus) infection. A single prophylactic oral dose of CL246,738 provided almost complete protection of mice against VEE, Banzi, and HSV-2, and also increased the mean survival time for Caraparu infected mice. Collectively, these results indicate that rIFN-A, r-IFN-G, ampligen and CL246,738 may be useful in prophylactic or early therapeutic treatment of several serious virus infections. Since these agents stimulate NK cells and M phi, their antiviral activity may result, in part, from the alterations they induce in the natural immune system.[1]


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