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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Gut-associated lymphoid tissue in the large intestine of calves. I. Distribution and histology.

Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in the large intestine was characterized in 12 calves (10 to 84 days old) obtained at necropsy (7, group A) or healthy animals (5, group B). Patches of mucosal lymphoid follicles were in all calves at ileocecal entrances (ICE), 23-42 cm distal to the ICE in the proximal loop of the ascending colon (proximal colon [PC] patch), and in the terminal rectum. PC patches varied from 8 to 30 cm in length. Solitary lymphoid follicles were found in the cecum of three calves, between the ileocecal entrances and the PC patch in four calves, adjacent to the PC patch in all calves, and in the ampulla recti. GALT occupied 7.8% of the large intestinal wall in animals of group A: 0.6% at the ileocecal entrance, 4.8% in the proximal colon, and 2.4% in the rectum. There were two different types of mucosal lymphoid follicles in group B: propria nodules with lymphoid follicles predominantly in the lamina propria, and lymphoglandular complexes with lymphoid follicles in the submucosa. In three 3-, 6-, and 7-day-old, germfree calves, distinct follicle-associated epithelium covered propria nodules and covering folds in depths of the lymphoglandular complexes; it was characterized by numerous intraepithelial cells and lack of goblet cells.[1]


  1. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue in the large intestine of calves. I. Distribution and histology. Liebler, E.M., Pohlenz, J.F., Woode, G.N. Vet. Pathol. (1988) [Pubmed]
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