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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Functional anatomy of macaque striate cortex. I. Ocular dominance, binocular interactions, and baseline conditions.

A series of experiments was carried out using 14C-2-deoxy-d-glucose (DG) in order to examine the functional architecture of macaque striate (primary visual) cortex. This paper describes the results of experiments on uptake during various baseline (or reference) conditions of visual stimulation (described below), and on differences in the functional architecture following monocular versus binocular viewing conditions. In binocular "baseline" experiments, monkeys were stimulated either (1) in the dark, (2) with a diffuse gray screen, or (3) with a very general visual stimulus composed of gratings of varied orientation and spatial frequency. In all of these conditions, DG uptake was found to be topographically uniform within all layers of parafoveal striate cortex. In monocular experiments that were otherwise similar, uptake was topographically uniform within the full extent of the eye dominance strip, in all layers. Certain other visual stimuli produce high uptake in the blobs, and still another set of visual stimuli (including high-spatial-frequency gratings) produce highest uptake between the blobs at parafoveal eccentricities, even in an unanesthetized, unparalyzed monkey. Eye movements per se had no obvious effect on striate DG uptake. Endogenous uptake in the blobs (relative to that in the interblobs) appears higher in the squirrel monkey than in the macaque. The pattern of DG uptake produced by binocular viewing was found to deviate in a number of ways from that expected by linearly summing the component monocular DG patterns. One of the most interesting deviations was an enhancement of the representation of visual field borders between stimuli differing from each other in texture, orientation, direction, etc. This "border enhancement" was confined to striate layers 1-3 (not appearing in any of the striate input layers), and it only appeared following binocular, but not monocular, viewing conditions. The border enhancement may be related to a suppression of DG uptake that occurs during binocular viewing conditions in layers 2 + 3 (and perhaps layers 1 and 4B), but not in layers 4Ca, 4Cb, 5 or 6. Another major class of binocular interaction was a spread of neural activity into the "unstimulated" ocular dominance strips following monocular stimulation. Such an effect was prominent in striate layer 4Ca, but it did not occur in layer 4Cb. This "binocular" spread of DG uptake into the inappropriate eye dominance strip in 4Ca may be related to the appearance of orientation tuning and orientation columns in that layer. No DG effects were seen that depended on the absolute disparity of visual stimuli in macaque striate cortex.[1]


  1. Functional anatomy of macaque striate cortex. I. Ocular dominance, binocular interactions, and baseline conditions. Tootell, R.B., Hamilton, S.L., Silverman, M.S., Switkes, E. J. Neurosci. (1988) [Pubmed]
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