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MeSH Review

Visual Fields

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Disease relevance of Visual Fields


Psychiatry related information on Visual Fields

  • MRI infarcts were more common in participants who were older, had prior stroke, impaired cognition, visual field deficits, slowed repetitive finger tapping (all P < .0001), weakness on toe and heel walking, and history of memory loss, coma, or migraine headaches [6].
  • In experiment 1, intake of flunitrazepam generally increased reaction time more during response execution by the left as compared to the right hemisphere, and the most pronounced effect was observed on responses with the right hand, directed across the body axis, to visual stimuli presented in the left visual field [7].
  • There is a need for more complete information regarding several aspects of the mechanistic basis of visual field defects associated with vigabatrin that will allow rational clinical decision making [8].
  • One patient taking vigabatrin was excluded from the study because her visual field results were unreliable because of multi-infarct dementia [9].
  • Posterior choroidal lesions result in visual field deficits, variable sensory loss, weakness, dystonia, tremors, and occasionally amnesia and language impairment [10].

High impact information on Visual Fields

  • Visual function recovered faster in the group receiving intravenous methylprednisolone than in the placebo group; this was particularly true for the reversal of visual-field defects (P = 0.0001) [11].
  • The representations of the visual field in SI and SII showed a partially retinotopic organization [12].
  • In addition, the measurements demonstrate a cluster of visual field maps in ventral occipital cortex (VO cluster) anterior to hV4 [13].
  • In the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project 14 patients were notified with lone bilateral blindness, defined as rapid onset of dimming or loss of vision over all of both visual fields simultaneously, lasting under 24 hours, without associated symptoms of focal cerebral ischaemia, epilepsy, or reduction in consciousness [14].
  • Visual texture discrimination has been shown to induce long-lasting behavioral improvement restricted to the trained eye and trained location in visual field [Karni, A. & Sagi, D. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 4966-4970] [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Visual Fields


Biological context of Visual Fields


Anatomical context of Visual Fields

  • This study suggests that the visual field loss in vigabatrin-treated epileptic patients may result from a sequence of events starting from cone cell injury to a more severe disorganization of the photoreceptor layer [26].
  • This phenomenon and the conditions for its occurrence were examined in three different situations: over the retinal blind spot, across the midline of the visual field in commissurotomized patients, and in the blind visual field in hemianopic patients [27].
  • METHODS: Humphrey visual fields (program 30-2) were obtained before and after partial temporal lobe resection in 32 consecutive patients with intractable epilepsy [28].
  • PURPOSE: To quantify retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) and macular thickness (MT) in patients exhibiting vigabatrin-attributed visual field loss (VAVFL) and to determine the efficacy of these measures as markers of the retinal damage associated with vigabatrin [29].
  • Fluorescein angiograms (13 patients), optic nerve photographs (13 patients), focal electroretinograms (3 patients), and nerve fiber analyses (8 patients) were performed in patients with visual field defects [30].

Associations of Visual Fields with chemical compounds


Gene context of Visual Fields

  • Comparison of visual function between comparably aged patients with mutations in RPGR versus RP2 showed that, on average, patients with RPGR mutations have lower ERG amplitudes and smaller visual field areas [35].
  • Although no significant difference was seen in the clinical characteristics of female patients with NTG who carried the AGTR2/3123C-->A genotype, patients with CC in the AGTR2 gene had significantly worse visual field scores if they carried ACE/ID+DD (i.e., D carriers; P = 0.012) [36].
  • Among the patients with POAG who were carriers of TNF-alpha/-857T, the optineurin/412A carriers had significantly worse (P = 0.020) visual field scores than the non-optineurin/412A ones [37].
  • Comparably aged patients with RP1 mutations had visual function that varied by approximately two orders of magnitude, based on visual fields and ERG amplitudes [38].
  • Our study suggests that the clinical characteristics such as visual field defect and recurrence are correlated with the high Ki-67 labeling index [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Visual Fields


  1. Close genetic linkage between X-linked retinitis pigmentosa and a restriction fragment length polymorphism identified by recombinant DNA probe L1.28. Bhattacharya, S.S., Wright, A.F., Clayton, J.F., Price, W.H., Phillips, C.I., McKeown, C.M., Jay, M., Bird, A.C., Pearson, P.L., Southern, E.M. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Selective transsphenoidal adenomectomy in women with galactorrhea-amenorrhea. Post, K.D., Biller, B.J., Adelman, L.S., Molitch, M.E., Wolpert, S.M., Reichlin, S. JAMA (1979) [Pubmed]
  3. X-linked dominant cone-rod degeneration: linkage mapping of a new locus for retinitis pigmentosa (RP 15) to Xp22.13-p22.11. McGuire, R.E., Sullivan, L.S., Blanton, S.H., Church, M.W., Heckenlively, J.R., Daiger, S.P. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Mouse model for Usher syndrome: linkage mapping suggests homology to Usher type I reported at human chromosome 11p15. Heckenlively, J.R., Chang, B., Erway, L.C., Peng, C., Hawes, N.L., Hageman, G.S., Roderick, T.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Short-term recovery of visual field loss in acromegaly during treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue. Cobb, W.E., Jackson, I.M. Am. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Silent brain infarction on magnetic resonance imaging and neurological abnormalities in community-dwelling older adults. The Cardiovascular Health Study. CHS Collaborative Research Group. Price, T.R., Manolio, T.A., Kronmal, R.A., Kittner, S.J., Yue, N.C., Robbins, J., Anton-Culver, H., O'Leary, D.H. Stroke (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of flunitrazepam on responses to lateralized visual stimuli: evidence for cerebral asymmetry of execution of manual movements to targets in contralateral and ipsilateral visual space. Ingum, J., Bjørklund, R. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Visual field defects and other ophthalmological disturbances associated with vigabatrin. Spence, S.J., Sankar, R. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. A controlled study of vigabatrin and visual abnormalities. Manuchehri, K., Goodman, S., Siviter, L., Nightingale, S. The British journal of ophthalmology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Vascular syndromes of the thalamus. Schmahmann, J.D. Stroke (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. A randomized, controlled trial of corticosteroids in the treatment of acute optic neuritis. The Optic Neuritis Study Group. Beck, R.W., Cleary, P.A., Anderson, M.M., Keltner, J.L., Shults, W.T., Kaufman, D.I., Buckley, E.G., Corbett, J.J., Kupersmith, M.J., Miller, N.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Induction of functional retinal projections to the somatosensory system. Frost, D.O., Metin, C. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Visual field maps and stimulus selectivity in human ventral occipital cortex. Brewer, A.A., Liu, J., Wade, A.R., Wandell, B.A. Nat. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Lone bilateral blindness: a transient ischaemic attack. Dennis, M.S., Bamford, J.M., Sandercock, P.A., Warlow, C.P. Lancet (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Neural correlates of perceptual learning: a functional MRI study of visual texture discrimination. Schwartz, S., Maquet, P., Frith, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma and octreotide response to long term high dose treatment, and studies in vitro. de Bruin, T.W., Kwekkeboom, D.J., Van't Verlaat, J.W., Reubi, J.C., Krenning, E.P., Lamberts, S.W., Croughs, R.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Dopamine and the representation of the upper visual field: evidence from vertical bisection errors in unilateral Parkinson's disease. Lee, A.C., Harris, J.P., Atkinson, E.A., Nithi, K., Fowler, M.S. Neuropsychologia. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Randomized clinical trial of a new dexamethasone delivery system (Surodex) for treatment of post-cataract surgery inflammation. Tan, D.T., Chee, S.P., Lim, L., Lim, A.S. Ophthalmology (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Retinal hemorrhage asymmetry in inflicted head injury: a clue to pathogenesis? Gilles, E.E., McGregor, M.L., Levy-Clarke, G. J. Pediatr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Heparin-induced antiheparin-platelet antibody associated with retinal venous thrombosis. Nguyen, Q.D., Van Do, D., Feke, G.T., Demirjian, Z.N., Lashkari, K. Ophthalmology (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Retinopathy in systemic lupus erythematosus: relationship to disease activity. Klinkhoff, A.V., Beattie, C.W., Chalmers, A. Arthritis Rheum. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. The characteristics of residual motion perception in the hemifield contralateral to lateral occipital lesions in humans. Plant, G.T., Nakayama, K. Brain (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Vigabatrin-associated retinal cone system dysfunction: electroretinogram and ophthalmologic findings. Krauss, G.L., Johnson, M.A., Miller, N.R. Neurology (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. The contribution of spatial remapping impairments to unilateral visual neglect. Pisella, L., Mattingley, J.B. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Visual acuities and scotomas after one week levodopa administration in human amblyopia. Gottlob, I., Charlier, J., Reinecke, R.D. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Vigabatrin, the GABA-transaminase inhibitor, damages cone photoreceptors in rats. Duboc, A., Hanoteau, N., Simonutti, M., Rudolf, G., Nehlig, A., Sahel, J.A., Picaud, S. Ann. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. An investigation into perceptual completion in blind areas of the visual field. Sergent, J. Brain (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. Visual field defects after temporal lobe resection: a prospective quantitative analysis. Hughes, T.S., Abou-Khalil, B., Lavin, P.J., Fakhoury, T., Blumenkopf, B., Donahue, S.P. Neurology (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Detecting vigabatrin toxicity by imaging of the retinal nerve fiber layer. Wild, J.M., Robson, C.R., Jones, A.L., Cunliffe, I.A., Smith, P.E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Visual field defects after macular hole surgery. A new finding. Hutton, W.L., Fuller, D.G., Snyder, W.B., Fellman, R.L., Swanson, W.H. Ophthalmology (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Mapping striate and extrastriate visual areas in human cerebral cortex. DeYoe, E.A., Carman, G.J., Bandettini, P., Glickman, S., Wieser, J., Cox, R., Miller, D., Neitz, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Visual impairment in children with epilepsy treated with vigabatrin. Gross-Tsur, V., Banin, E., Shahar, E., Shalev, R.S., Lahat, E. Ann. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Recovery of vision after ischemic lesions: positron emission tomography. Bosley, T.M., Dann, R., Silver, F.L., Alavi, A., Kushner, M., Chawluk, J.B., Savino, P.J., Sergott, R.C., Schatz, N.J., Reivich, M. Ann. Neurol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  34. The role of striate cortex in visual function of the cat. Pasternak, T., Tompkins, J., Olson, C.R. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  35. X-linked retinitis pigmentosa: mutation spectrum of the RPGR and RP2 genes and correlation with visual function. Sharon, D., Bruns, G.A., McGee, T.L., Sandberg, M.A., Berson, E.L., Dryja, T.P. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Genetic polymorphisms in the angiotensin II receptor gene and their association with open-angle glaucoma in a Japanese population. Hashizume, K., Mashima, Y., Fumayama, T., Ohtake, Y., Kimura, I., Yoshida, K., Ishikawa, K., Yasuda, N., Fujimaki, T., Asaoka, R., Koga, T., Kanamoto, T., Fukuchi, T., Miyaki, K. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Variants in optineurin gene and their association with tumor necrosis factor-alpha polymorphisms in Japanese patients with glaucoma. Funayama, T., Ishikawa, K., Ohtake, Y., Tanino, T., Kurosaka, D., Kimura, I., Suzuki, K., Ideta, H., Nakamoto, K., Yasuda, N., Fujimaki, T., Murakami, A., Asaoka, R., Hotta, Y., Tanihara, H., Kanamoto, T., Mishima, H., Fukuchi, T., Abe, H., Iwata, T., Shimada, N., Kudoh, J., Shimizu, N., Mashima, Y. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. Clinical features and mutations in patients with dominant retinitis pigmentosa-1 (RP1). Berson, E.L., Grimsby, J.L., Adams, S.M., McGee, T.L., Sweklo, E., Pierce, E.A., Sandberg, M.A., Dryja, T.P. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. Clinical significance of Ki-67 labeling index in pituitary macroadenoma. Paek, K.I., Kim, S.H., Song, S.H., Choi, S.W., Koh, H.S., Youm, J.Y., Kim, Y. J. Korean Med. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  40. Localization of the gene for X-linked recessive type of retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) to Xp21 by linkage analysis. Musarella, M.A., Burghes, A., Anson-Cartwright, L., Mahtani, M.M., Argonza, R., Tsui, L.C., Worton, R. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  41. Field-specific visual-evoked potentials: identifying field defects in vigabatrin-treated children. Harding, G.F., Spencer, E.L., Wild, J.M., Conway, M., Bohn, R.L. Neurology (2002) [Pubmed]
  42. A frequent 1085delC/insGAAG mutation in the RDH5 gene in Japanese patients with fundus albipunctatus. Wada, Y., Abe, T., Fuse, N., Tamai, M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  43. The prevalence of glaucoma in the Melbourne Visual Impairment Project. Wensor, M.D., McCarty, C.A., Stanislavsky, Y.L., Livingston, P.M., Taylor, H.R. Ophthalmology (1998) [Pubmed]
  44. Retinotopic organization in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). Wye-Dvorak, J., Levick, W.R., Mark, R.F. J. Comp. Neurol. (1987) [Pubmed]
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