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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Lipoprotein lipases from cow, guinea-pig and man. Structural characterization and identification of protease-sensitive internal regions.

Lipoprotein lipases from human, bovine or guinea-pig milk were purified, judged for domain relationships by characterization of sites sensitive to proteases, and structurally compared. The subunit of human lipoprotein lipase migrated slightly slower than those of bovine or guinea-pig lipoprotein lipases on sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Bovine lipoprotein lipase is known to be a dimer of two non-covalently linked subunits of equal size, and the lipases from all three sources now yielded homogeneous N-terminal amino acid sequences (followed for 15-27 residues). The results indicate that the two subunits are identical. Bovine lipoprotein lipase had two additional N-terminal residues, Asp-Arg, compared to the human and guinea-pig enzymes, and the next two positions revealed residue differences, but further on homologies were extensive between all three enzymes as far as presently traced. Exposure of bovine lipoprotein lipase to trypsin led to production of three fragments (T1, T2a, and T2b), suggesting cleavage at exposed segments delineating domain borders. Time studies gave no evidence for precursor-product relationships between the fragments, and prolonged digestion did not lead to further cleavage. Fragments T2a and T2b had the same N-terminal sequence as intact lipase. Fragment T1 revealed a new sequence, and represents the C-terminal half of the molecule. Plasmin caused a similar cleavage as trypsin, whereas thrombin, factor Xa, and tissue plasminogen activator did not cleave the enzyme. Chymotrypsin cleaved off a relatively small fragment from the C-terminal of the molecule, after which exposure to trypsin still resulted in cleavage at the same sites as in intact lipase. Tryptic cleavage of guinea-pig lipoprotein lipase yielded two fragments. One had a similar size as bovine fragment T2b; the other had a similar size as bovine fragment T1 and an N-terminal sequence homologous with that of T1. Thus, trypsin recognizes the same unique site in guinea-pig lipoprotein lipase as in the bovine enzyme. This confirms the conclusion that this segment is the border between two domains in the subunit. The binding site for heparin was retained after both tryptic and chymotryptic cleavages and was identified as localized in the C-terminal part of the molecule.[1]


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