The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

PLG  -  plasminogen

Bos taurus

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of PLG

  • A 34-amino acid peptide, PTHrP(1-34), was two to four times more potent than bovine or human PTH(1-34) in bioassays promoting the formation of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and plasminogen activator activity in osteogenic sarcoma cells and adenylate cyclase activity in chick kidney membranes [1].
  • Its release from platelets by thrombin may protect the growing thrombus against premature dissolution initiated by plasminogen activators released by the endothelium [2].
  • Identification of a pituitary factor responsible for enhancement of plasminogen activator activity in breast tumor cells [3].
  • We demonstrate that neuraminidase, the second major protein on the virion surface, binds and sequesters plasminogen, leading to higher local concentrations of this ubiquitous protease precursor and thus to increased cleavage of the HA [4].
  • Hyperglycemia increased expression from a transforming growth factor-beta(1) promoter luciferase reporter by 2-fold and increased expression from a (-740 to +44) plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promoter luciferase reporter gene by nearly 3-fold [5].

High impact information on PLG


Chemical compound and disease context of PLG


Biological context of PLG

  • A mutagenesis strategy comprising nested deletions and random point substitutions indicated roles for both amino and carboxyl-terminal regions of PauA and identified further essential residues within the alpha domain of the plasminogen activator [14].
  • Among these, 10 corresponding to the gene for human plasminogen have been analyzed, and 3 that overlap have been shown to extend from kringle 3 through the 3' noncoding region of the gene [15].
  • The longest clone that was found was 581 base pairs in length and coded for the C-terminal 107 amino acids of bovine plasminogen, a 3' noncoding region of 246 nucleotides and a poly(A) tail [15].
  • A cDNA library was constructed in pBR322 from bovine liver mRNA that was enriched for plasminogen mRNA by polysome immunoprecipitation [15].
  • The amino acid sequence of the single polypeptide chain of bovine plasminogen (786 residues, Mr 88092) was determined [16].

Anatomical context of PLG

  • Serum-mediated suppression of cell-associated plasminogen activator activity in cultured endothelial cells [17].
  • PA inhibitor incorporated into the extracellular matrix may serve an important role in the regulation of plasminogen activator mediated matrix degradation [18].
  • A model of protein Ca fibrinolytic activity has a minimum of two components: a secondary messenger formed by protein Ca action on blood cells and plasma, and the subsequent appearance of plasminogen activator in the animal in response to that messenger [19].
  • Release of basic fibroblast growth factor-heparan sulfate complexes from endothelial cells by plasminogen activator-mediated proteolytic activity [20].
  • We conclude that HSPGs of human bone marrow serve as a reservoir for bFGF, from which it can be released in a biologically active form via a dual mechanism; one involving a putative endogenous phospholipase, the other involving the proteolytic cascade of plasminogen activation [21].

Associations of PLG with chemical compounds

  • Digestion with elastase gave three major fragments: kringles (1 + 2 + 3) and kringle 4, both with intact lysine binding sites, and mini-plasminogen [16].
  • In porcine plasminogen the sialic acid is mainly NeuAc; the Man alpha 1----6 branch, however, is only partially sialylated [22].
  • In the N-glycan of human plasminogen the two antennae are sialylated with N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc), whereas in the bovine counterpart both branches carry significant amounts of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) [22].
  • The results show that the N-terminal prolyl residue of PLG is not an essential requirement for this tripeptide's ability to modulate dopamine receptors [23].
  • However, the potency seen with 5 and 6 was less than that seen for 2 and 4, suggesting that while the N-terminal "C5" conformation may play a role in the potency of the gamma-lactam peptidomimetics of PLG, it does not appear to be the primary factor [24].

Physical interactions of PLG

  • Binding of angiogenin to its cell-surface binding protein (actin) followed by dissociation of the angiogenin-actin complex from the cell surface and subsequent activation of tissue-type plasminogen activator/plasmin are likely steps involved in the processes of endothelial cell invasion and angiogenesis [25].

Regulatory relationships of PLG


Other interactions of PLG

  • Beta-analogs of PLG (L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide): ex-chiral pool syntheses and dopamine D2 receptor modulating effects [31].
  • In addition to its role in lysosome biogenesis, the CI-MPR interacts with a number of different extracellular ligands at the cell surface, including latent transforming growth factor-beta, insulin-like growth factor-II, plasminogen, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), to regulate cell growth and motility [32].
  • Transfected BAECs exhibit increased responsiveness to TGF beta 2 by several different criteria including an increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 protein and inhibition of migration and proliferation [33].
  • FGF2-mediated upregulation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression requires a MAP-kinase dependent activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase [34].
  • The three domains, which exhibit similar topology to each other and to the 46 kDa cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, assemble into a compact structure with the uPAR/plasminogen and the carbohydrate-binding sites situated on opposite faces of the molecule [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PLG


  1. Parathyroid hormone-related protein of malignancy: active synthetic fragments. Kemp, B.E., Moseley, J.M., Rodda, C.P., Ebeling, P.R., Wettenhall, R.E., Stapleton, D., Diefenbach-Jagger, H., Ure, F., Michelangeli, V.P., Simmons, H.A. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Detection and partial characterization of an inhibitor of plasminogen activator in human platelets. Erickson, L.A., Ginsberg, M.H., Loskutoff, D.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Identification of a pituitary factor responsible for enhancement of plasminogen activator activity in breast tumor cells. Mira-y-Lopez, R., Joseph-Silverstein, J., Rifkin, D.B., Ossowski, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. A novel mechanism for the acquisition of virulence by a human influenza A virus. Goto, H., Kawaoka, Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial superoxide overproduction activates the hexosamine pathway and induces plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression by increasing Sp1 glycosylation. Du, X.L., Edelstein, D., Rossetti, L., Fantus, I.G., Goldberg, H., Ziyadeh, F., Wu, J., Brownlee, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Tumor-promoting phorbol esters induce angiogenesis in vitro. Montesano, R., Orci, L. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Follicular plasminogen and plasminogen activator and the effect of plasmin on ovarian follicle wall. Beers, W.H. Cell (1975) [Pubmed]
  8. Surface properties of bacillus Calmette-Guérin-activated mouse macrophages. Reduced expression of mannose-specific endocytosis, Fc receptors, and antigen F4/80 accompanies induction of Ia. Ezekowitz, R.A., Austyn, J., Stahl, P.D., Gordon, S. J. Exp. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Autocrine angiotensin system regulation of bovine aortic endothelial cell migration and plasminogen activator involves modulation of proto-oncogene pp60c-src expression. Bell, L., Luthringer, D.J., Madri, J.A., Warren, S.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS derivatives on the production of tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 by human blood mononuclear cells. Semeraro, N., Montemurro, P., Piccoli, C., Muolo, V., Colucci, M., Giuliani, G., Fumarola, D., Pece, S., Moran, A.P. J. Infect. Dis. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. The development of granulomatous pulmonary inflammation in rabbits by aerosol challenge. I. Release of plasminogen activator by alveolar macrophages. Wilson, B.D., Huang, C.J., Moore, V.L., Calvanico, N.J. Cell. Immunol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Review and application of serine protease inhibition in coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Engles, L. American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of the heparinoid pentosan polysulphate (SP 54) on the functional properties of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. Delvos, U., Paul, J.E., Müller-Berghaus, G. Blut (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Complex interactions between bovine plasminogen and streptococcal plasminogen activator PauA. Ward, P.N., Field, T.R., Rosey, E.L., Abu-Median, A.B., Lincoln, R.A., Leigh, J.A. J. Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Characterization of a complementary deoxyribonucleic acid coding for human and bovine plasminogen. Malinowski, D.P., Sadler, J.E., Davie, E.W. Biochemistry (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Complete amino acid sequence of bovine plasminogen. Comparison with human plasminogen. Schaller, J., Moser, P.W., Dannegger-Müller, G.A., Rösselet, S.J., Kämpfer, U., Rickli, E.E. Eur. J. Biochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Serum-mediated suppression of cell-associated plasminogen activator activity in cultured endothelial cells. Levin, E.G., Loskutoff, D.J. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  18. Plasminogen activator inhibitor is associated with the extracellular matrix of cultured bovine smooth muscle cells. Knudsen, B.S., Harpel, P.C., Nachman, R.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Generation of fibrinolytic activity by infusion of activated protein C into dogs. Comp, P.C., Esmon, C.T. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Release of basic fibroblast growth factor-heparan sulfate complexes from endothelial cells by plasminogen activator-mediated proteolytic activity. Saksela, O., Rifkin, D.B. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Phospholipase C release of basic fibroblast growth factor from human bone marrow cultures as a biologically active complex with a phosphatidylinositol-anchored heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Brunner, G., Gabrilove, J., Rifkin, D.B., Wilson, E.L. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. The N- and O-linked carbohydrate chains of human, bovine and porcine plasminogen. Species specificity in relation to sialylation and fucosylation patterns. Marti, T., Schaller, J., Rickli, E.E., Schmid, K., Kamerling, J.P., Gerwig, G.J., van Halbeek, H., Vliegenthart, J.F. Eur. J. Biochem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Synthesis of Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2 analogues modified at the prolyl residue and evaluation of their effects on the receptor binding activity of the central dopamine receptor agonist, ADTN. Johnson, R.L., Rajakumar, G., Yu, K.L., Mishra, R.K. J. Med. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Design, synthesis, and dopamine receptor modulating activity of diketopiperazine peptidomimetics of L-prolyl-L-leucylglycinamide. Baures, P.W., Ojala, W.H., Costain, W.J., Ott, M.C., Pradhan, A., Gleason, W.B., Mishra, R.K., Johnson, R.L. J. Med. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Angiogenin promotes invasiveness of cultured endothelial cells by stimulation of cell-associated proteolytic activities. Hu, G., Riordan, J.F., Vallee, B.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. SPARC induces the expression of type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. Hasselaar, P., Loskutoff, D.J., Sawdey, M., Sage, E.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Mechanism of retinoid-induced activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta in bovine endothelial cells. Kojima, S., Rifkin, D.B. J. Cell. Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. The mitogenic signaling pathway but not the plasminogen activator-inducing pathway of basic fibroblast growth factor is mediated through protein kinase C in fetal bovine aortic endothelial cells. Presta, M., Maier, J.A., Ragnotti, G. J. Cell Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Staphylococcus aureus stimulates urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression by bovine mammary cells. Zavizion, B., White, J.H., Bramley, A.J. J. Infect. Dis. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Angiogenin enhances actin acceleration of plasminogen activation. Hu, G.F., Riordan, J.F. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Beta-analogs of PLG (L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide): ex-chiral pool syntheses and dopamine D2 receptor modulating effects. Thomas, C., Ohnmacht, U., Niger, M., Gmeiner, P. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Structure of uPAR, plasminogen, and sugar-binding sites of the 300 kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Olson, L.J., Yammani, R.D., Dahms, N.M., Kim, J.J. EMBO J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Expression of transforming growth factor type III receptor in vascular endothelial cells increases their responsiveness to transforming growth factor beta 2. Sankar, S., Mahooti-Brooks, N., Centrella, M., McCarthy, T.L., Madri, J.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. FGF2-mediated upregulation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression requires a MAP-kinase dependent activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Caldini, R., Barletta, E., Del Rosso, M., Giovannelli, L., Chevanne, M. J. Cell. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Degradation and protein release properties of microspheres prepared from biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and ABA triblock copolymers: influence of buffer media on polymer erosion and bovine serum albumin release. Bittner, B., Witt, C., Mäder, K., Kissel, T. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society. (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. Measuring the heterogeneity of protein loading in PLG microspheres using flow cytometry. Turner, P., Coombes, A.G., Al-Rubeai, M. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Bovine serum albumin loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres: the influence of polymer purity on particle characteristics. Bittner, B., Ronneberger, B., Zange, R., Volland, C., Anderson, J.M., Kissel, T. Journal of microencapsulation. (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Purification of a factor from human placenta that stimulates capillary endothelial cell protease production, DNA synthesis, and migration. Moscatelli, D., Presta, M., Rifkin, D.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  39. Plasmin-mediated proteolysis of casein in bovine milk. Eigel, W.N., Hofmann, C.J., Chibber, B.A., Tomich, J.M., Keenan, T.W., Mertz, E.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities