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Gene Review

LPL  -  lipoprotein lipase

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Disease relevance of LPL


Psychiatry related information on LPL


High impact information on LPL

  • When bovine milk LPL was added to endothelial cell monolayers before addition of 125I-labeled LDL, LDL transport across the monolayers was unchanged; but, at all concentrations of LDL tested (1-100 micrograms), LDL retention by the monolayers increased more than fourfold [7].
  • Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the rate-limiting enzyme for hydrolysis of plasma lipoprotein triglycerides, is a normal constituent of the arterial wall [7].
  • Hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) serum, lipolyzed in vitro by purified bovine milk lipoprotein lipase, was found to be cytotoxic to cultured macrophages [8].
  • Thus, the bovine LPL standard curve was used to estimate LPL immunoreactive mass from human adipose tissue [9].
  • Regulation of human LPL immunoreactive mass was demonstrated in vitro by IGF-I, serum, high concentrations of insulin, adenosine, and inosine [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of LPL


Biological context of LPL

  • The predicted amino acid sequence indicates that bovine LPL is a hydrophilic protein consisting of 450 amino acids (Mr 50,548) in its unglycosylated form [10].
  • Complete nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that cDNA insert 49R2 contains the entire coding region for LPL as well as a 3' untranslated region of about 1.6 kb [10].
  • Following chemical hydrolysis and peptide separation, a specific fragment of LPL (residues 65-86) was identified to interact with apoC-II [11].
  • Isolated human adipocytes represent a novel and useful system for the study of LPL and lipid metabolism as well as for other aspects of adipocyte biology [12].
  • To assess whether lipolysis was necessary for LPL release, BFC-1 beta were incubated with TG-rich lipoproteins from a patient with apoCII deficiency [13].

Anatomical context of LPL


Associations of LPL with chemical compounds

  • The subunit of human lipoprotein lipase migrated slightly slower than those of bovine or guinea-pig lipoprotein lipases on sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis [16].
  • A broad range of heparin concentrations produced a prompt release of LPL from a rapidly replenishable pool of cellular activity [12].
  • Inosine stimulated an increase in HR activity and HR mass, but had no effect on EXT, and thus did not change LPL specific activity [9].
  • Heparinase treatment of the basal cell surface and addition of dextran sulfate (0.15 microM) to the lower chamber decreased the amount of 125I-LPL appearing on the apical surface [17].
  • We postulate that regulation of LPL transport to the endothelial luminal surface modulates the physiologically active pool of LPL in vivo [17].

Physical interactions of LPL


Enzymatic interactions of LPL


Regulatory relationships of LPL


Other interactions of LPL

  • I speculate that apo C-III may act by inhibiting the apo C-II-LPL interaction [21].
  • ApoCII prevented the inhibition by bis-ANS, and was also able to restore the activity of inhibited LPL in a competitive manner, but only with triacylglycerols with acyl chains longer than three carbons [23].
  • LDL-LPL binding was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies that recognize amino acids 380-410 in the C-terminal region of LPL, a region also shown to interact with heparin and LDL receptor-related protein [24].
  • Reconstituted apolipoprotein B from Cu-OxLDL also reduced 125I-ModOxLDL to LPL, whereas liposomes derived from the lipid extract of Cu-OxLDL had no effect on binding [25].
  • LDL bound to LPL with high affinity (K(d) values of 10(-12) m) similar to that observed for the binding of LDL to its receptors and 1D1, a monoclonal antibody to LDL, and was greater than its affinity for microsomal triglyceride transfer protein [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LPL


  1. In vitro lipolysis of human VLDL: effect of different VLDL compositions in normolipidemia, familial combined hyperlipidemia and familial hypertriglyceridemia. van Barlingen, H.H., Kock, L.A., de Man, F.H., Erkelens, D.W., de Bruin, T.W. Atherosclerosis (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Mild oxidation of lipoproteins increases their affinity for surfaces covered by heparan sulfate and lipoprotein lipase. Makoveichuk, E., Lookene, A., Olivecrona, G. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Factors affecting the distribution of lipoprotein lipase activity between serum and casein micelles in bovine milk. Anderson, M. J. Dairy Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Effect of desialylation of very low-density lipoproteins on their catabolism by lipoprotein lipase. Stoline, A.M., Saku, K., Hynd, B.A., Kashyap, M.L. Metab. Clin. Exp. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Weaning affects lipoprotein lipase activity and gene expression in adipose tissues and in masseter but not in other muscles of the calf. Hocquette, J.F., Graulet, B., Vermorel, M., Bauchart, D. Br. J. Nutr. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. The accumulation of visceral adipose tissue may be influenced by intra-abdominal temperature. Kahn, H.S. Obes. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Lipoprotein lipase increases low density lipoprotein retention by subendothelial cell matrix. Saxena, U., Klein, M.G., Vanni, T.M., Goldberg, I.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Lipolytic surface remnants of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are cytotoxic to macrophages but not in the presence of high density lipoprotein. A possible mechanism of atherogenesis? Chung, B.H., Segrest, J.P., Smith, K., Griffin, F.M., Brouillette, C.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation of lipoprotein lipase immunoreactive mass in isolated human adipocytes. Kern, P.A., Ong, J.M., Goers, J.W., Pedersen, M.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular cloning and sequence of a cDNA coding for bovine lipoprotein lipase. Senda, M., Oka, K., Brown, W.V., Qasba, P.K., Furuichi, Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification of a lipoprotein lipase cofactor-binding site by chemical cross-linking and transfer of apolipoprotein C-II-responsive lipolysis from lipoprotein lipase to hepatic lipase. McIlhargey, T.L., Yang, Y., Wong, H., Hill, J.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Regulation of lipoprotein lipase in primary cultures of isolated human adipocytes. Kern, P.A., Marshall, S., Eckel, R.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Lipoprotein lipase release from BFC-1 beta adipocytes. Effects of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and lipolysis products. Sasaki, A., Goldberg, I.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification of a heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase binding protein from endothelial cells. Sivaram, P., Klein, M.G., Goldberg, I.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Transcytosis of lipoprotein lipase across cultured endothelial cells requires both heparan sulfate proteoglycans and the very low density lipoprotein receptor. Obunike, J.C., Lutz, E.P., Li, Z., Paka, L., Katopodis, T., Strickland, D.K., Kozarsky, K.F., Pillarisetti, S., Goldberg, I.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Lipoprotein lipases from cow, guinea-pig and man. Structural characterization and identification of protease-sensitive internal regions. Bengtsson-Olivecrona, G., Olivecrona, T., Jörnvall, H. Eur. J. Biochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Transport of lipoprotein lipase across endothelial cells. Saxena, U., Klein, M.G., Goldberg, I.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Chymotryptic cleavage of lipoprotein lipase. Identification of cleavage sites and functional studies of the truncated molecule. Lookene, A., Bengtsson-Olivecrona, G. Eur. J. Biochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Inhibition of lipoprotein lipase by the receptor-binding domain of apolipoprotein E. McConathy, W.J., Wang, C.S. FEBS Lett. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Lipoprotein lipase catalyzed hydrolysis of water-soluble p-nitrophenyl esters. Inhibition by apolipoprotein C-II. Quinn, D.M., Shirai, K., Jackson, R.L., Harmony, J.A. Biochemistry (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Activation of lipoprotein lipase by apolipoprotein C-II is modulated by the COOH terminal region of apolipoprotein C-III. Catapano, A.L. Chem. Phys. Lipids (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Inhibition by serum components of the expression of lipoprotein lipase gene upon stimulation by growth hormone. Pradines-Figueres, A., Barcellini-Couget, S., Dani, C., Baudoin, C., Ailhaud, G. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. 1,1'-bis(anilino)-4-,4'-bis(naphtalene)-8,8'-disulfonate acts as an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase and competes for binding with apolipoprotein CII. Lookene, A., Zhang, L., Tougu, V., Olivecrona, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. High affinity binding between lipoprotein lipase and lipoproteins involves multiple ionic and hydrophobic interactions, does not require enzyme activity, and is modulated by glycosaminoglycans. Hussain, M.M., Obunike, J.C., Shaheen, A., Hussain, M.J., Shelness, G.S., Goldberg, I.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Oxidation of low density lipoproteins greatly enhances their association with lipoprotein lipase anchored to endothelial cell matrix. Auerbach, B.J., Bisgaier, C.L., Wölle, J., Saxena, U. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
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