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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

In vivo effects of aminooxyacetic acid and valproic acid on nerve terminal (synaptosomal) GABA levels in discrete brain areas of the rat. Correlation to pharmacological activities.

A newly developed synaptosomal model was used to evaluate the in vivo effects of the GABA-elevating drugs aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA, 30 mg/kg i.p.) and valproic acid (VPA, 200 mg/kg i.p.) on GABA levels in nerve endings of 11 brain regions in rats as a function of time after administration. The data obtained were compared with the magnitude and time course of the effects of both drugs in rats on body temperature, pain response and against seizures induced by electroshock, pentylenetetrazol and 3-mercaptopropionic acid. Following AOAA, maximum increases in synaptosomal GABA levels of brain regions were observed 6 hr after administration. At this time, GABA was significantly elevated up to 300% over control values in synaptosomal fractions from all 11 regions. However, the hypothermic and antinociceptive effects of the drug as well as its anticonvulsant action against electroshock and pentylenetetrazol induced seizures were maximal 1 hr after injection and had vanished after 6 hr, i.e. at the time of maximum GABA increases in synaptosomes. The only pharmacological effect of AOAA which paralleled the time course of the synaptosomal GABA elevation was the attenuation of seizures induced by 3-mercaptopropionic acid. Following VPA, the effect on synaptosomal GABA levels was much more rapid in onset and significant increases were already determined 5 to 30 min after administration. Significant increases of up to 80% over control values were found in synaptosomal fractions from olfactory bulb, frontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, tectum, substantia nigra and cerebellum. In contrast to AOAA, the time course of the synaptosomal GABA increases, at least in some regions, was similar to the time course of VPA's antinociceptice effects and its anticonvulsant effects in the three seizure models studied. The data may suggest that AOAA and VPA increase different pools of GABA within nerve terminals, only one of which is involved in GABA-mediated neurotransmission.[1]


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