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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Properties of glycans that activate the human alternative complement pathway and interact with the human monocyte beta-glucan receptor.

The glycans used in an earlier study to define the ligand specificity of the human monocyte phagocytic receptor for unopsonized particulate activators were assessed for their capacities to activate the proteins of the human alternative complement pathway. Normal human serum was preincubated with glycans under conditions of chelation to prevent activation of the classical complement pathway, and the activation-depletion of the alternative complement pathway was determined by the subsequent capacity of the serum to lyse rabbit erythrocytes (Er). When serum was preincubated at a 1/2 dilution in 8 mM EGTA/2 mM Mg with increasing numbers of yeast glucan or zymosan particles, and was evaluated at final serum dilutions of 1/8, its capacity to lyse Er was found to be reduced by 50% with 1.9 X 10(6)/ml yeast glucan particles and 1.4 X 10(6)/ml zymosan particles. At 2 mg/ml of serum diluted 1/2 in 8 mM EGTA/2 mM Mg, nonturbid preparations of mannan, laminarin, or pyrogen-free inulin and turbid suspensions of cellulose, Sephadex, agarose, or purified inulin failed to activate the alternative complement pathway. In contrast, activation-depletion of the alternative pathway was induced by turbid preparations of crude inulin, nigeran, pachyman, barley beta-glucan, and pustulan, which at 700 micrograms/ml, 500 micrograms/ml, 350 micrograms/ml, 60 micrograms/ml, and 27 micrograms/ml, respectively, effected 50% reductions in the subsequent lysis of Er. After centrifugation of 2 mg/ml suspensions of barley beta-glucan at 1100 X G for 5 min and at 15,000 X G for 15 min, the supernatants contained 90 to 92% and 65% of the barley beta-glucan, respectively, as determined by the anthrone method. On a weight basis, the 1100 X G supernatant exhibited the same capacity to activate the alternative pathway as the corresponding original suspension, whereas the 15,000 X G supernatants had less than 3% of the original anti-complementary activity. Preincubation of adherent human monocytes with increasing concentrations of barley beta-glucan suspensions, 100,000 X G supernatants containing 64% of the original beta-glucan, and laminarin all decreased subsequent ingestion of 1.25 X 10(6) zymosan particles in a dose-related fashion. The numbers of monocytes from three different donors phagocytosing zymosan were reduced by 50% after pretreatment with 30 to 65 micrograms/ml, 25 to 48 micrograms/ml, and 12 to 15 micrograms/ml of barley beta-glucan suspensions, 100,000 X G supernatants of barley beta-glucan, and laminarin, respectively, even though the latter two preparations were fully soluble and had no capacity to activate the alternative pathway.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[1]


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