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MeSH Review

Complement Pathway, Classical

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Disease relevance of Complement Pathway, Classical


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  • C1-Inh, belonging to the superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins), is a major inhibitor of the classical complement pathway, the contact activation system, and the intrinsic pathway of coagulation, respectively [7].
  • Mannose-binding protein (MBP), C1q, the recognition component of the classical complement pathway, and pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) are members of a family of molecules containing a collagen-like sequence contiguous with a noncollagen-like sequence, and usually having the properties of a lectin [8].
  • C3 deposition on promastigotes activated through the classical complement pathway reaches a 50% maximum after similar50 s, and represents >85% of total C3 bound [9].
  • The role of the classical complement pathway in humoral immune responses was investigated in gene-targeted C1q-deficient mice (C1qA-/-) [10].
  • Using a functional assay that measures the surface deposition of C3 activated via the classical complement pathway, we show that Crry/p65-expressing cells have a markedly decreased amount of C3 deposited on them as compared with control cells expressing the antisense construct or cells expressing MCR1 or MCR2 [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Complement Pathway, Classical


Biological context of Complement Pathway, Classical


Anatomical context of Complement Pathway, Classical


Associations of Complement Pathway, Classical with chemical compounds


Gene context of Complement Pathway, Classical


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Complement Pathway, Classical


  1. Molecular basis of complement resistance of human melanoma cells expressing the C3-cleaving membrane protease p65. Ollert, M.W., Kadlec, J.V., Petrella, E.C., Bredehorst, R., Vogel, C.W. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Host cell modification of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and Newcastle disease virus altering viral inactivation by human complement. Welsh, R.M. J. Immunol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  3. Alternative complement pathway activation by C4b deposited during classical pathway activation. Matsushita, M., Okada, H. J. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Complement component C3 is not required for full expression of immune complex glomerulonephritis in MRL/lpr mice. Sekine, H., Reilly, C.M., Molano, I.D., Garnier, G., Circolo, A., Ruiz, P., Holers, V.M., Boackle, S.A., Gilkeson, G.S. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of the complement classical pathway by human glioma in culture. A model for complement expression by nerve cells. Gasque, P., Ischenko, A., Legoedec, J., Mauger, C., Schouft, M.T., Fontaine, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Aspartate residue 7 in amyloid beta-protein is critical for classical complement pathway activation: implications for Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Velazquez, P., Cribbs, D.H., Poulos, T.L., Tenner, A.J. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. C1-Esterase inhibitor: an anti-inflammatory agent and its potential use in the treatment of diseases other than hereditary angioedema. Caliezi, C., Wuillemin, W.A., Zeerleder, S., Redondo, M., Eisele, B., Hack, C.E. Pharmacol. Rev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Mannose binding protein (MBP) enhances mononuclear phagocyte function via a receptor that contains the 126,000 M(r) component of the C1q receptor. Tenner, A.J., Robinson, S.L., Ezekowitz, R.A. Immunity (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Complement interaction with trypanosomatid promastigotes in normal human serum. Domínguez, M., Moreno, I., López-Trascasa, M., Toraño, A. J. Exp. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. T cell-dependent immune response in C1q-deficient mice: defective interferon gamma production by antigen-specific T cells. Cutler, A.J., Botto, M., van Essen, D., Rivi, R., Davies, K.A., Gray, D., Walport, M.J. J. Exp. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Distinct receptor and regulatory properties of recombinant mouse complement receptor 1 (CR1) and Crry, the two genetic homologues of human CR1. Molina, H., Wong, W., Kinoshita, T., Brenner, C., Foley, S., Holers, V.M. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 glycoprotein C prevents complement-mediated neutralization induced by natural immunoglobulin M antibody. Hook, L.M., Lubinski, J.M., Jiang, M., Pangburn, M.K., Friedman, H.M. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Legionella pneumophila lipopolysaccharide activates the classical complement pathway. Mintz, C.S., Schultz, D.R., Arnold, P.I., Johnson, W. Infect. Immun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Antibody-independent activation of the classical pathway of complement by Epstein-Barr virus. Martin, H., McConnell, I., Gorick, B., Hughes-Jones, N.C. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. A comparative study of mammalian and reptilian alternative pathway of complement-mediated killing of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi). Kuo, M.M., Lane, R.S., Giclas, P.C. J. Parasitol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. A comparative analysis of the C1-binding ability of fragments derived from complement-fixing and noncomplement-fixing IgM proteins. Hurst, M.M., Volanakis, J.E., Stroud, R.M., Bennett, J.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  17. Synthesis and regulation of the two human complement C4 genes in stable transfected mouse fibroblasts. Miura, N., Prentice, H.L., Schneider, P.M., Perlmutter, D.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Complement contributes to protective immunity against reinfection by Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi parasites. Taylor, P.R., Seixas, E., Walport, M.J., Langhorne, J., Botto, M. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Sodium azide inhibition of complement-mediated functions. Shaw, D.R., Shaw, M.W., Hickman, S.E., Lamon, E.W., Griffin, F.M. Immunology (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. Polyglycolic acid-induced inflammation: role of hydrolysis and resulting complement activation. Ceonzo, K., Gaynor, A., Shaffer, L., Kojima, K., Vacanti, C.A., Stahl, G.L. Tissue engineering. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. In vitro complement binding on cytoplasmic structures in normal human skin: immunoelectronmicroscopic studies. Schuler, G., Hintner, H., Wolff, K., Fritsch, P., Stingl, G. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Inhibition of activation of the classical pathway of complement by human neutrophil defensins. van den Berg, R.H., Faber-Krol, M.C., van Wetering, S., Hiemstra, P.S., Daha, M.R. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Signal transduction mechanisms of C1q-mediated superoxide production. Evidence for the involvement of temporally distinct staurosporine-insensitive and sensitive pathways. Goodman, E.B., Tenner, A.J. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Cell surface molecules related to factor J in human lymphoid cells and cell lines. Jiménez-Clavero, M.A., González-Rubio, C., Larrucea, S., Gamallo, C., Fontán, G., López-Trascasa, M. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Arthropathic group A streptococcal cell walls require specific antibody for activation of human complement by both the classical and alternative pathways. Eisenberg, R.A., Schwab, J.H. Infect. Immun. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Membrane-bound C4b interacts endogenously with complement receptor CR1 of human red cells. Kinoshita, T., Medof, M.E., Hong, K., Nussenzweig, V. J. Exp. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. C-reactive protein mediates the solubilization of nuclear DNA by complement in vitro. Robey, F.A., Jones, K.D., Steinberg, A.D. J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. C1 fixation and classical complement pathway activation by a fragment of the Cmu4 domain of IgM. Hurst, M.M., Volanakis, J.E., Stroud, R.M., Bennett, J.C. J. Exp. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  29. Covalent association of C3b with C4b within C5 convertase of the classical complement pathway. Takata, Y., Kinoshita, T., Kozono, H., Takeda, J., Tanaka, E., Hong, K., Inoue, K. J. Exp. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  30. Activation of the classical complement pathway by mannose-binding protein in association with a novel C1s-like serine protease. Matsushita, M., Fujita, T. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. Characterization of a de novo conversion in human complement C4 gene producing a C4B5-like protein. Jaatinen, T., Eholuoto, M., Laitinen, T., Lokki, M.L. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Biochemical and functional characterization of the interaction between pentraxin 3 and C1q. Nauta, A.J., Bottazzi, B., Mantovani, A., Salvatori, G., Kishore, U., Schwaeble, W.J., Gingras, A.R., Tzima, S., Vivanco, F., Egido, J., Tijsma, O., Hack, E.C., Daha, M.R., Roos, A. Eur. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Activation of complement by mannose-binding lectin on isogenic mutants of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. Jack, D.L., Dodds, A.W., Anwar, N., Ison, C.A., Law, A., Frosch, M., Turner, M.W., Klein, N.J. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Involvement of the lectin pathway of complement activation in antimicrobial immune defense during experimental septic peritonitis. Windbichler, M., Echtenacher, B., Hehlgans, T., Jensenius, J.C., Schwaeble, W., Männel, D.N. Infect. Immun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. A cluster of positively charged amino acids in the C4BP alpha-chain is crucial for C4b binding and factor I cofactor function. Blom, A.M., Webb, J., Villoutreix, B.O., Dahlbäck, B. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. Generation of C-reactive protein and complement components in atherosclerotic plaques. Yasojima, K., Schwab, C., McGeer, E.G., McGeer, P.L. Am. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Mannose-binding lectin is a regulator of inflammation that accompanies myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. Walsh, M.C., Bourcier, T., Takahashi, K., Shi, L., Busche, M.N., Rother, R.P., Solomon, S.D., Ezekowitz, R.A., Stahl, G.L. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Heparin-protamine complexes and C-reactive protein induce activation of the classical complement pathway: studies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and in vitro. Bruins, P., te Velthuis, H., Eerenberg-Belmer, A.J., Yazdanbakhsh, A.P., de Beaumont, E.M., Eijsman, L., Trouwborst, A., Hack, C.E. Thromb. Haemost. (2000) [Pubmed]
  39. Role of complement in the pathogenesis of postpartum thyroiditis: relationship between complement activation and disease presentation and progression. Parkes, A.B., Othman, S., Hall, R., John, R., Lazarus, J.H. Eur. J. Endocrinol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  40. Disruption of complement-mediated reactions by insoluble dentifrice ingredients. Boackle, R.J., Draughn, R.A., Vesely, J. J. Periodontol. (1981) [Pubmed]
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