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Chemical Compound Review

AC1L96ZZ     (2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2- [(2R,4R,5R,6R)-4,5...

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Disease relevance of Glucan


Psychiatry related information on Glucan


High impact information on Glucan

  • These results suggest that KOJAK/AtCSLD3 is involved in the biosynthesis of beta-glucan-containing polysaccharides that are required during root hair elongation [7].
  • Our results establish a fundamental function for beta-glucan recognition by dectin-1 in antifungal immunity and demonstrate a signaling non-Toll-like pattern-recognition receptor required for the induction of protective immune responses [8].
  • In vitro, beta-glucan-induced cytokine production from wild-type dendritic cells and macrophages was abolished in cells homozygous for dectin-1 deficiency ('dectin-1-knockout' cells) [9].
  • However, in the clean environment, a single intraperitoneal injection of zymosan, a crude fungal beta-glucan, or purified beta-glucans such as curdlan and laminarin can trigger severe chronic arthritis in SKG mice, but only transient arthritis in normal mice [10].
  • Protection probably was mediated by anti-beta-glucan antibodies as demonstrated by passive transfer of protection to naive mice by the whole immune serum, the immune vaginal fluid, and the affinity-purified anti-beta-glucan IgG fractions, as well as by administration of a beta-glucan-directed IgG2b mAb [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Glucan


Biological context of Glucan


Anatomical context of Glucan


Associations of Glucan with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Glucan

  • Multiple copies of the CDC43 gene can partially suppress the growth and (1-3) beta-D-glucan synthase defect of the cwg2-1 mutant at the restrictive temperature [30].
  • These suppression and synthetic lethal interactions, as well as reduced beta-glucan and mannan levels in the pkc1 null wall, support a role for the PKC1 pathway functioning in cell wall assembly [31].
  • Particulate beta-glucan induced IL-1Ra production from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) but did not stimulate IL-1 beta synthesis or gene expression in these same cells [32].
  • Moreover, treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C that removed GPI-anchored proteins increased CD11b-specific binding of (125)I-labeled beta-glucan by 3-fold and this was reversed with soluble recombinant uPAR [33].
  • Thus, the overall cytokine pattern of leukocytes from soluble beta-glucan-treated mice reflects suppressed production of proinflammatory cytokines, especially TNF-alpha [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Glucan


  1. The hypocholesterolemic effects of beta-glucan in oatmeal and oat bran. A dose-controlled study. Davidson, M.H., Dugan, L.D., Burns, J.H., Bova, J., Story, K., Drennan, K.B. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Severe reduction in leukocyte adhesion and monocyte extravasation in mice deficient in CC chemokine receptor 2. Kuziel, W.A., Morgan, S.J., Dawson, T.C., Griffin, S., Smithies, O., Ley, K., Maeda, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Compounds active against cell walls of medically important fungi. Hector, R.F. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Yeast beta-glucan amplifies phagocyte killing of iC3b-opsonized tumor cells via complement receptor 3-Syk-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. Li, B., Allendorf, D.J., Hansen, R., Marroquin, J., Ding, C., Cramer, D.E., Yan, J. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Properties of Escherichia coli mutants lacking membrane-derived oligosaccharides. Fiedler, W., Rotering, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Activation of cellular functions in macrophages by venom secretory Asp-49 and Lys-49 phospholipases A(2). Zuliani, J.P., Gutiérrez, J.M., Casais e Silva, L.L., Coccuzzo Sampaio, S., Lomonte, B., Pereira Teixeira, C.d.e. .F. Toxicon (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. KOJAK encodes a cellulose synthase-like protein required for root hair cell morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. Favery, B., Ryan, E., Foreman, J., Linstead, P., Boudonck, K., Steer, M., Shaw, P., Dolan, L. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Dectin-1 is required for beta-glucan recognition and control of fungal infection. Taylor, P.R., Tsoni, S.V., Willment, J.A., Dennehy, K.M., Rosas, M., Findon, H., Haynes, K., Steele, C., Botto, M., Gordon, S., Brown, G.D. Nat. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Dectin-1 is required for host defense against Pneumocystis carinii but not against Candida albicans. Saijo, S., Fujikado, N., Furuta, T., Chung, S.H., Kotaki, H., Seki, K., Sudo, K., Akira, S., Adachi, Y., Ohno, N., Kinjo, T., Nakamura, K., Kawakami, K., Iwakura, Y. Nat. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. A role for fungal {beta}-glucans and their receptor Dectin-1 in the induction of autoimmune arthritis in genetically susceptible mice. Yoshitomi, H., Sakaguchi, N., Kobayashi, K., Brown, G.D., Tagami, T., Sakihama, T., Hirota, K., Tanaka, S., Nomura, T., Miki, I., Gordon, S., Akira, S., Nakamura, T., Sakaguchi, S. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. A novel glyco-conjugate vaccine against fungal pathogens. Torosantucci, A., Bromuro, C., Chiani, P., De Bernardis, F., Berti, F., Galli, C., Norelli, F., Bellucci, C., Polonelli, L., Costantino, P., Rappuoli, R., Cassone, A. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Intronless celB from the anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum encodes a modular family A endoglucanase. Zhou, L., Xue, G.P., Orpin, C.G., Black, G.W., Gilbert, H.J., Hazlewood, G.P. Biochem. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Breath hydrogen and methane expiration in men and women after oat extract consumption. Behall, K.M., Scholfield, D.J., van der Sluijs, A.M., Hallfrisch, J. J. Nutr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Cloning and characterization of the glucooligosaccharide catabolic pathway beta-glucan glucohydrolase and cellobiose phosphorylase in the marine hyperthermophile Thermotoga neapolitana. Yernool, D.A., McCarthy, J.K., Eveleigh, D.E., Bok, J.D. J. Bacteriol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Serum concentrations of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, neopterin, and beta-glucan in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and in patients with major depression. Matsuda, J., Gohchi, K., Gotoh, N. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Beta-glucan ameliorates methotrexate-induced oxidative organ injury via its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. Sener, G., Ekşioğlu-Demiralp, E., Cetiner, M., Ercan, F., Yeğen, B.C. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Alveolar macrophage-mediated killing of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. muris involves molecular recognition by the Dectin-1 beta-glucan receptor. Steele, C., Marrero, L., Swain, S., Harmsen, A.G., Zheng, M., Brown, G.D., Gordon, S., Shellito, J.E., Kolls, J.K. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Structural basis for broad substrate specificity in higher plant beta-D-glucan glucohydrolases. Hrmova, M., De Gori, R., Smith, B.J., Fairweather, J.K., Driguez, H., Varghese, J.N., Fincher, G.B. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Yeast beta-glucan synthesis: KRE6 encodes a predicted type II membrane protein required for glucan synthesis in vivo and for glucan synthase activity in vitro. Roemer, T., Bussey, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Generation of leukotrienes by human monocytes upon stimulation of their beta-glucan receptor during phagocytosis. Czop, J.K., Austen, K.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Cloning and characterization of a Neurospora crassa gene required for (1,3) beta-glucan synthase activity and cell wall formation. Enderlin, C.S., Selitrennikoff, C.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Collaborative induction of inflammatory responses by dectin-1 and Toll-like receptor 2. Gantner, B.N., Simmons, R.M., Canavera, S.J., Akira, S., Underhill, D.M. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Isolation and characterization of beta-glucan receptors on human mononuclear phagocytes. Czop, J.K., Kay, J. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Dectin-1 mediates the biological effects of beta-glucans. Brown, G.D., Herre, J., Williams, D.L., Willment, J.A., Marshall, A.S., Gordon, S. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Transfer of zymosan (yeast cell walls) to the parasitophorous vacuoles of macrophages infected with Leishmania amazonensis. Veras, P.S., de Chastellier, C., Rabinovitch, M. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Soluble beta-glucan polysaccharide binding to the lectin site of neutrophil or natural killer cell complement receptor type 3 (CD11b/CD18) generates a primed state of the receptor capable of mediating cytotoxicity of iC3b-opsonized target cells. Vetvicka, V., Thornton, B.P., Ross, G.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Cellulose utilization by Clostridium thermocellum: bioenergetics and hydrolysis product assimilation. Zhang, Y.H., Lynd, L.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. An Arabidopsis gene encoding an alpha-xylosyltransferase involved in xyloglucan biosynthesis. Faik, A., Price, N.J., Raikhel, N.V., Keegstra, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Ligands for the beta-glucan receptor, Dectin-1, assigned using "designer" microarrays of oligosaccharide probes (neoglycolipids) generated from glucan polysaccharides. Palma, A.S., Feizi, T., Zhang, Y., Stoll, M.S., Lawson, A.M., Díaz-Rodríguez, E., Campanero-Rhodes, M.A., Costa, J., Gordon, S., Brown, G.D., Chai, W. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe cwg2+ gene codes for the beta subunit of a geranylgeranyltransferase type I required for beta-glucan synthesis. Díaz, M., Sanchez, Y., Bennett, T., Sun, C.R., Godoy, C., Tamanoi, F., Duran, A., Perez, P. EMBO J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Characterization of the yeast (1-->6)-beta-glucan biosynthetic components, Kre6p and Skn1p, and genetic interactions between the PKC1 pathway and extracellular matrix assembly. Roemer, T., Paravicini, G., Payton, M.A., Bussey, H. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Cross-linking of the beta-glucan receptor on human monocytes results in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist but not interleukin-1 production. Poutsiaka, D.D., Mengozzi, M., Vannier, E., Sinha, B., Dinarello, C.A. Blood (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. Function of the lectin domain of Mac-1/complement receptor type 3 (CD11b/CD18) in regulating neutrophil adhesion. Xia, Y., Borland, G., Huang, J., Mizukami, I.F., Petty, H.R., Todd, R.F., Ross, G.D. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Modulation of endotoxin- and enterotoxin-induced cytokine release by in vivo treatment with beta-(1,6)-branched beta-(1,3)-glucan. Soltys, J., Quinn, M.T. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Dectin-1 mediates macrophage recognition of Candida albicans yeast but not filaments. Gantner, B.N., Simmons, R.M., Underhill, D.M. EMBO J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Beta-glucan enhances complement-mediated hematopoietic recovery after bone marrow injury. Cramer, D.E., Allendorf, D.J., Baran, J.T., Hansen, R., Marroquin, J., Li, B., Ratajczak, J., Ratajczak, M.Z., Yan, J. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  37. Beta-glucan functions as an adjuvant for monoclonal antibody immunotherapy by recruiting tumoricidal granulocytes as killer cells. Hong, F., Hansen, R.D., Yan, J., Allendorf, D.J., Baran, J.T., Ostroff, G.R., Ross, G.D. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. Properties of glycans that activate the human alternative complement pathway and interact with the human monocyte beta-glucan receptor. Czop, J.K., Austen, K.F. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  39. Beta-glucan incorporated into a fruit drink effectively lowers serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Naumann, E., van Rees, A.B., Onning, G., Oste, R., Wydra, M., Mensink, R.P. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2006) [Pubmed]
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