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MeSH Review

Complement Pathway, Alternative

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Disease relevance of Complement Pathway, Alternative


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Chemical compound and disease context of Complement Pathway, Alternative


Biological context of Complement Pathway, Alternative


Anatomical context of Complement Pathway, Alternative


Associations of Complement Pathway, Alternative with chemical compounds

  • The critical role of the sialic acid residues in allowing the organism to evade activating the alternative complement pathway was shown when neuraminidase treatment of the organism converted the bacteria to activators of the alternative pathway as assessed in agammaglobulinemic serum [27].
  • Surface-associated heparin inhibits zymosan-induced activation of the human alternative complement pathway by augmenting the regulatory action of the control proteins on particle-bound C3b [28].
  • In the absence of exogenous complement, the binding and ingestion of promastigotes, which are good activators of the alternative complement pathway, were inhibited by the anti-CR3 monoclonal antibody M1/70, by the Fab portion of an anti-C3 antibody, or by the nucleophile, sodium salicyl hydroxamate, an inhibitor of C3 fixation [29].
  • The lipid A region of the LPS is responsible for classical pathway activation and the polysaccharide region responsible for properdin pathway activation [30].
  • At 2 mg/ml of serum diluted 1/2 in 8 mM EGTA/2 mM Mg, nonturbid preparations of mannan, laminarin, or pyrogen-free inulin and turbid suspensions of cellulose, Sephadex, agarose, or purified inulin failed to activate the alternative complement pathway [31].

Gene context of Complement Pathway, Alternative


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Complement Pathway, Alternative


  1. Roles of the Alternative Complement Pathway and C1q during Innate Immunity to Streptococcus pyogenes. Yuste, J., Ali, S., Sriskandan, S., Hyams, C., Botto, M., Brown, J.S. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Host modification of Sindbis virus sialic acid content influences alternative complement pathway activation and virus clearance. Hirsch, R.L., Griffin, D.E., Winkelstein, J.A. J. Immunol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. Neutralization of influenza virus by normal human sera: mechanisms involving antibody and complement. Beebe, D.P., Schreiber, R.D., Cooper, N.R. J. Immunol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Central role of complement in passive protection by human IgG1 and IgG2 anti-pneumococcal antibodies in mice. Saeland, E., Vidarsson, G., Leusen, J.H., Van Garderen, E., Nahm, M.H., Vile-Weekhout, H., Walraven, V., Stemerding, A.M., Verbeek, J.S., Rijkers, G.T., Kuis, W., Sanders, E.A., Van De Winkel, J.G. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Localized heat urticaria. Daman, L., Lieberman, P., Ganier, M., Hashimoto, K. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  6. Reduced alternative complement pathway control protein levels in anorexia nervosa: response to parenteral alimentation. Wyatt, R.J., Farrell, M., Berry, P.L., Forristal, J., Maloney, M.J., West, C.D. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Variation in factor B (BF) and complement component 2 (C2) genes is associated with age-related macular degeneration. Gold, B., Merriam, J.E., Zernant, J., Hancox, L.S., Taiber, A.J., Gehrs, K., Cramer, K., Neel, J., Bergeron, J., Barile, G.R., Smith, R.T., Hageman, G.S., Dean, M., Allikmets, R., Chang, S., Yannuzzi, L.A., Merriam, J.C., Barbazetto, I., Lerner, L.E., Russell, S., Hoballah, J., Hageman, J., Stockman, H. Nat. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Recurrent septicemia associated with congenital deficiency of C2 and partial deficiency of factor B and the alternative complement pathway. Newman, S.L., Vogler, L.B., Feigin, R.D., Johnston, R.B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  9. Phagocytosis of particulate activators of the alternative complement pathway: effects of fibronectin. Czop, J.K. Adv. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Babesia rodhaini: requirement of complement for penetration of human erythrocytes. Chapman, W.E., Ward, P.A. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  11. Immune evasion by a staphylococcal complement inhibitor that acts on C3 convertases. Rooijakkers, S.H., Ruyken, M., Roos, A., Daha, M.R., Presanis, J.S., Sim, R.B., van Wamel, W.J., van Kessel, K.P., van Strijp, J.A. Nat. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Control of the immune complex-complement interaction by protein H of the alternative complement pathway and the natural inhibitor heparin. Spycher, M.O., Nydegger, U.E. Eur. J. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Amino acid sequence of human D of the alternative complement pathway. Niemann, M.A., Bhown, A.S., Bennett, J.C., Volanakis, J.E. Biochemistry (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Increased local complement levels upon intraperitoneal injection of mice with Listeria monocytogenes and regulation by polyanions. Klerx, J.P., Beukelman, C.J., van Dijk, H., van Overveld, F.J., van der Maaden, W.J., Willers, J.M. Infect. Immun. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Activation of the alternative complement pathway by a streptococcal lipoteichoic acid. Fiedel, B.A., Jackson, R.W. Infect. Immun. (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. All forms of human IgA antibodies bound to antigen interfere with complement (C3) fixation induced by IgG or by antigen alone. Nikolova, E.B., Tomana, M., Russell, M.W. Scand. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Continual low-level activation of the classical complement pathway. Manderson, A.P., Pickering, M.C., Botto, M., Walport, M.J., Parish, C.R. J. Exp. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Role of the classical and alternative complement pathways in chemotaxis and opsonization: studies of human serum deficient in C4. Clark, R.A., Klebanoff, S.J. J. Immunol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of anticomplement agent K76 COOH on hamster-to-rat and guinea pig-to-rat heart xenotransplantation. Tanaka, M., Murase, N., Ye, Q., Miyazaki, W., Nomoto, M., Miyazawa, H., Manez, R., Toyama, Y., Demetris, A.J., Todo, S., Starzl, T.E. Transplantation (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Neutrophil chemotactic activity of peptidoglycan. A comparison between Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Riber, U., Espersen, F., Wilkinson, B.J., Kharazmi, A. APMIS (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Immunomodulating properties of Argentine plants with ethnomedicinal use. Fernández, T., Cerdá Zolezzi, P., Risco, E., Martino, V., López, P., Clavin, M., Hnatyszyn, O., Canigueral, S., Hajos, S., Ferraro, G., Alvarez, E. Phytomedicine (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Interferon gamma induces synthesis of complement alternative pathway proteins by human endothelial cells in culture. Ripoche, J., Mitchell, J.A., Erdei, A., Madin, C., Moffatt, B., Mokoena, T., Gordon, S., Sim, R.B. J. Exp. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Activation of the alternative complement pathway by exposure of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine on erythrocytes from sickle cell disease patients. Wang, R.H., Phillips, G., Medof, M.E., Mold, C. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. A common haplotype in the complement regulatory gene factor H (HF1/CFH) predisposes individuals to age-related macular degeneration. Hageman, G.S., Anderson, D.H., Johnson, L.V., Hancox, L.S., Taiber, A.J., Hardisty, L.I., Hageman, J.L., Stockman, H.A., Borchardt, J.D., Gehrs, K.M., Smith, R.J., Silvestri, G., Russell, S.R., Klaver, C.C., Barbazetto, I., Chang, S., Yannuzzi, L.A., Barile, G.R., Merriam, J.C., Smith, R.T., Olsh, A.K., Bergeron, J., Zernant, J., Merriam, J.E., Gold, B., Dean, M., Allikmets, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. A beta-glucan inhibitable receptor on human monocytes: its identity with the phagocytic receptor for particulate activators of the alternative complement pathway. Czop, J.K., Austen, K.F. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. Activation of C3 via the alternative complement pathway results in fixation of C3b to the pneumococcal cell wall. Winkelstein, J.A., Abramovitz, A.S., Tomasz, A. J. Immunol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  27. The role of specific antibody in alternative complement pathway-mediated opsonophagocytosis of type III, group B Streptococcus. Edwards, M.S., Nicholson-Weller, A., Baker, C.J., Kasper, D.L. J. Exp. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  28. Surface-associated heparin inhibits zymosan-induced activation of the human alternative complement pathway by augmenting the regulatory action of the control proteins on particle-bound C3b. Kazatchkine, M.D., Fearon, D.T., Silbert, J.E., Austen, K.F. J. Exp. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  29. Macrophage complement and lectin-like receptors bind Leishmania in the absence of serum. Blackwell, J.M., Ezekowitz, R.A., Roberts, M.B., Channon, J.Y., Sim, R.B., Gordon, S. J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  30. Activation of the classical and properdin pathways of complement by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Morrison, D.C., Kline, L.F. J. Immunol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  31. Properties of glycans that activate the human alternative complement pathway and interact with the human monocyte beta-glucan receptor. Czop, J.K., Austen, K.F. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. How antibodies to a ubiquitous cytoplasmic enzyme may provoke joint-specific autoimmune disease. Matsumoto, I., Maccioni, M., Lee, D.M., Maurice, M., Simmons, B., Brenner, M., Mathis, D., Benoist, C. Nat. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Complement inhibitor, complement receptor 1-related gene/protein y-Ig attenuates intestinal damage after the onset of mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice. Rehrig, S., Fleming, S.D., Anderson, J., Guthridge, J.M., Rakstang, J., McQueen, C.E., Holers, V.M., Tsokos, G.C., Shea-Donohue, T. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Complement C4 is protective for lupus disease independent of C3. Einav, S., Pozdnyakova, O.O., Ma, M., Carroll, M.C. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. A functional role for corpora amylacea based on evidence from complement studies. Singhrao, S.K., Morgan, B.P., Neal, J.W., Newman, G.R. Neurodegeneration : a journal for neurodegenerative disorders, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Abrogation of the alternative complement pathway by targeted deletion of murine factor B. Matsumoto, M., Fukuda, W., Circolo, A., Goellner, J., Strauss-Schoenberger, J., Wang, X., Fujita, S., Hidvegi, T., Chaplin, D.D., Colten, H.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. Characterization of the initial C3 convertase of the alternative pathway of human complement. Fishelson, Z., Pangburn, M.K., Müller-Eberhard, H.J. J. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  38. The complement system in sclera. Brawman-Mintzer, O., Mondino, B.J., Mayer, F.J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  39. Sialic acid of group B Neisseria meningitidis regulates alternative complement pathway activation. Jarvis, G.A., Vedros, N.A. Infect. Immun. (1987) [Pubmed]
  40. Hypocomplementemic glomerulonephritis in an infant and mother. Evidence for an abnormal form of C3. Linshaw, M.A., Stapleton, F.B., Cuppage, F.E., Forristal, J., West, C.D., Schreiber, R.D., Wilson, C.B. American journal of nephrology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  41. A cleavage product of mouse C3 adsorbable to (1----3)-beta-D-glucan from Alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes IFO 13140. Matsushita, M., Sankawa, U., Okuda, T., Okada, H., Sasaki, T. Jpn. J. Exp. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
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