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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Guanylate cyclase and cyclic guanosine 3':5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase activities and cyclic guanosine 3':5'-monophosphate levels in normal and transformed fibroblasts in culture.

To investigate the role of guanosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cyclic GMP) in cultured cells we have measured guanylate cyclase and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase activities and cyclic GMP levels in normal and transformed fibroblastic cells. Guanylate cyclase activity is found almost exclusively in the particulate fraction of normal rat kidney (NRK) and BALB 3T3 cells. Enzyme activity is stimulated 3- to 10-fold by treatment with the detergent Lubrol PX. However, enhancement of guanylate cyclase by fibroblast growth factor could not be demonstrated under a variety of assay conditions. In both NRK and BALB 3T3 cells guanylate cyclase activity is low during logarithmic growth and increases as the cells crowd together and growth slows. Guanylate cyclase activity is undetectable in homogenates of NRK cells transformed by the Kirsten sarcoma virus (KNRK cells) either in the presence or absence of Lubrol PX. Guanylate cyclase activity is also greatly decreased in NRK cells transformed by Moloney, Schmidt-Ruppin, or Harvey viruses. BALB 3T3 cells transformed by RNA viruses (Kirsten, Harvey, or Moloney), by a DNA virus (SV40), by methylcholanthrene, or spontaneously, all have diminished but readily detectable guanylate cyclase activity. Cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase activity is found predominately in the soluble fraction of NRK cells. This activity increases slightly as NRK cells enter the stationary growth phase. Cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase activity is undetectable in two clones of KNRK cells under a variety of assay conditions, and is decreased relative to the level present in NRK cells in a third KNRK clone. However, both Moloney- and Schmidt-Ruppin-transformed NRK cells have a phosphodiesterase activity similar to that found in NRK cells. Boiled supernatant from both NRK and KNRK cells is observed to appreciably enhance the activity of activator-deficient phosphodiesterase from bovine heart. This result indicates that the absence of cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase activity in KNRK cells is not due to a loss of the phosphodiesterase activator. The intracellular concentration of cyclic GMP is found to be very low in transformed NRK cells when compared to levels measured in confluent NRK cells. The low levels of cyclic GMP in transformed NRK cells reflect the greatly decreased guanylate cyclase activity observed in these cells. These results do not appear to support the suggestion that cyclic GMP promotes the growth of fibroblastic cells.[1]


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