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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Production of alpha-fetoprotein, normal serum proteins, and human chorionic gonadotropin in stomach cancer: histologic and immunohistochemical analyses of 35 cases.

By immunoperoxidase histochemical staining of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections, the production of alpha-fetoprotein(AFP), albumin(ALB), transferrin(TF), alpha-1-antitrypsin(AAT), and human chorionic gonadotropin(HCG) was examined in 35 operatively resected stomach cancers with elevated serum AFP levels (higher than 20 ng/ml as determined by radioimmunoassay). Cells positive for AFP were found in 19 cases (54%). In 29 cases (83%), some tumor cells contained normal serum proteins (ALB, TF, or AAT). All 19 tumors with AFP-positive cells also stained positively for two or three kinds of normal serum proteins. In some cases, AFP and normal serum proteins were localized in the same cells. There were two cases in which metastatic tumors produced AFP, whereas the primary sites did not. In nine cases (26%), HCG was present in tumor cells and HCG- and AFP-positive cells were coexistent in six tumors. Histologic examination of AFP- producing stomach tumors revealed medullary or papillotubular arrangements with marked nuclear atypia and eosinophilic granular or clear cytoplasms containing no glycogen or mucin. Some tumors with medullary patterns resembled liver cell carcinomas. Concordant phenotypic expression of AFP and normal serum protein production appears to be a general feature of AFP-producing tumors such as liver cell carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, and stomach cancer.[1]


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