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Gene Review

ALB  -  albumin

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ANALBA, FDAH, GIG20, GIG42, PRO0883, ...
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Disease relevance of ALB

  • Metastatic colon cancer caused a relatively small decline of ALB compared to the mean in tumor-free patients [1].
  • Weight loss (UBW) correlated with ALB (P less than 0.001), TBPA (P less than 0.005) and RBP (P less than 0.02) but did not correlate with TFN (P less than 0.06), TSF, and MAMC [2].
  • RESULTS: All three gastric adenocarcinomas with hepatoid morphology with no evidence of AFP production stained positive for ALB mRNA, thus providing evidence of differentiation in the hepatocellular direction [3].
  • In this study, we investigated protein (total protein) synthesis and production of such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and albumin (ALB) in the media for cultured human hepatocellular carcinoma cells [4].
  • Serum prealbumin concentration (PALB) and albumin concentration (ALB) were evaluated as markers of undernutrition in 107 children with cerebral palsy (CP) age 2 to 18 years [5].

Psychiatry related information on ALB

  • Prolongation of reaction time (r) was found for HES at 30% and 60% haemodilution and for ALB at 60% haemodilution and an increase in clot lysis by HES, GEL and ALB became evident [6].
  • Transient increases in the concentrations of ALB and HA (P < 0.01 for both) was observed within 6 months of smoking cessation [7].

High impact information on ALB

  • Based upon this structural comparison, we establish that DBP is a member of the ALB and AFP gene family [8].
  • Intracisternal viruslike particles were present in outbred Syrian golden and inbred ALB/Mey Pfd hamster blastocysts, embryos, and fetuses [9].
  • METHODS: Albumin mRNA from circulating malignant hepatocytes was detected in the blood by reverse transcription followed by enzymatic amplification [10].
  • The gALB was also shown to have a higher molecular weight and be completely separated from ALB after SDS/pore gradient electrophoresis in a Tris borate/EDTA buffer [11].
  • In addition, the PS of gALB isolated from patients with diabetic polyneuropathy was significantly increased (P less than 0.0001) compared to the PS for ALB isolated from the same patients [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of ALB

  • The final regression model for CL was CL (ml/min) = 49.8 x (1 - 0.009 x PRO) x WT/Scr + 33.8 x (1 - 0.29 x META) x (1 - 0.012 x ALB), where ALB, PRO, WT, and Scr, respectively, were albuminemia, proteinemia (g/l), weight (kg), and serum creatinine (microM) and META = 1 if the patient had liver metastases (otherwise, META = 0) [12].
  • Estimated creatinine clearance (CL(CR)) was found to influence significantly the CL of raltitrexed and explained 35% of variability in this parameter, whilst body weight (WT) and serum albumin concentrations (ALB) accounted for 56% of the variability in V [13].
  • Diethylcarbamazine/albendazole (DEC/ALB) therapy is widely used in mass drug administration (MDA) programmes aimed at eliminating lymphatic filariasis [14].
  • A two-arm community-based lymphatic filariasis elimination trial is being carried out in Tamil Nadu state, India to assess the effect of 2 annual single-dose mass drug administrations of diethylcarbamazine + albendazole (DEC + ALB) on microfilaraemia and antigenaemia in one arm, and diethylcarbamazine(DEC) alone in the other arm [15].
  • Using the data of 131 patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), the correction formulas of fructosamine value ([FRA]) were devised to standardize the uncorrected [FRA] to serum albumin concentrations ([ALB]) of 4 g/dl, globulin concentrations ([GLB]) of 3 g/dl, and total protein concentrations ([TP]) of 7 g/dl [16].

Biological context of ALB


Anatomical context of ALB

  • ALB-positive hepatocytes were found in all of the normal or cirrhotic livers examined and in the tumor-free regions of the HCC-containing livers [22].
  • When human Bel-7402 hepatocarcinoma cell line grew in a medium containing 10(-4) M dimethyl-4,4'-dimethoxy-5,6,5', 6'-dimethylenedioxybiphynyl-2,2'-dicarboxylate (DDB), the secretion of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was significantly lower than the control cells, whereas the albumin (ALB) secretion was markedly higher [23].
  • The remaining 260 cases of AD were screened for amygdala LBs (AD/ALB) and 62 (24%) cases were found [21].
  • The burden of alpha-synuclein pathology in brainstem nuclei, amygdala, and neocortex was significant lower in AD/ALB than in AD/LBD [21].
  • Ten of 14 recipients survived, 9 of which had a significant increase in CRP (p = 0.012), HAP (p = 0.011), AAG (p = 0.002), and decrease in ALB (p = 0.002) and TBPA (p = 0.004) on Day +7, but not Day 0, after bone marrow reinfusion [24].

Associations of ALB with chemical compounds

  • In 3D culture, ALB and G6P were detected earlier and higher levels of urea and AFP were produced, when compared with 2D culture [25].
  • We investigated the effect of a single bout of moderate walking (45 min at approximately 40% of peak O2 consumption) on postexercise (POST-EX) muscle metabolism and synthesis of plasma proteins [albumin (ALB) and fibrinogen (FIB)] in untrained older (n = 6) and younger (n = 6) men [26].
  • Immunohistochemically, the cytoplasm of adult liver-type cells was positive for alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), human albumin (ALB), and the third (C3) and fourth (C4) components of the complement system [27].
  • Kruskal-Wallis analysis of class by ranks was significant for pattern class (1E-18), PAB (6.1E-15), ALB (1E-16), CHOL (9E-10), and TPR (5.3E-13) [28].
  • As a result of adding dexamethasone, it was found that AFP and ALB (or TF) production increased simultaneously [4].

Physical interactions of ALB


Regulatory relationships of ALB


Other interactions of ALB

  • Immunofluorescence analysis revealed the expression of albumin (ALB) and cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) [25].
  • The results suggest that, unlike the corresponding sequences in the ALB and AFP genes, chromosomal sequences encoding the first domain and the leader sequence of the GC gene have specifically been conserved throughout vertebrate evolution [31].
  • 1) Albumin and orosomucoid were not influenced by danazol or, after correction for volume expansion, by pregnancy [32].
  • Logistic regression indicated that this effect was independent of age and the epsilon4 dose of the apolipoprotein E gene (P < 0.01), while the ALB gene was supposed to be related to aging [33].
  • Comparing the two patient groups PCHE activity and albumin concentration were significantly lower in active than in quiescent CD [PCHE: 3.70 kU/l; 3.00-4.30 kU/l vs. 4.80 kU/l; 3.75-5.82 kU/l, p < 0.001; Albumin: 38.0 g/l; 35.1-39.9 g/l vs. 43.8 g/l; 40.8-46.3 g/l, p < 0.001] [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ALB


  1. Serum prealbumin, retinol-binding protein, transferrin, and albumin levels in patients with large bowel cancer. Milano, G., Cooper, E.H., Goligher, J.C., Giles, G.R., Neville, A.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  2. Plasma proteins as indices of response to nutritional therapy in cancer patients. Ota, D.M., Frasier, P., Guevara, J., Foulkes, M. Journal of surgical oncology. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Evidence for hepatocellular differentiation in alpha-fetoprotein-negative gastric adenocarcinoma with hepatoid morphology: a study with in situ hybridisation for albumin mRNA. Supriatna, Y., Kishimoto, T., Uno, T., Nagai, Y., Ishikura, H. Pathology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Establishment of an AFP-producing serum-independent culture cell line of human liver cancer and changes in protein synthesis associated with the absence of serum (second part). Nohara, T. Gastroenterol. Jpn. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Serum prealbumin and albumin concentrations do not reflect nutritional state in children with cerebral palsy. Lark, R.K., Williams, C.L., Stadler, D., Simpson, S.L., Henderson, R.C., Samson-Fang, L., Worley, G. J. Pediatr. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of progressive haemodilution with hydroxyethyl starch, gelatin and albumin on blood coagulation. Egli, G.A., Zollinger, A., Seifert, B., Popovic, D., Pasch, T., Spahn, D.R. British journal of anaesthesia. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Transient increases in albumin and hyaluronan in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after quitting smoking: possible signs of reparative mechanisms. Sköld, C.M., Blaschke, E., Eklund, A. Respiratory medicine. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Serum vitamin D-binding protein is a third member of the albumin and alpha fetoprotein gene family. Cooke, N.E., David, E.V. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. Viruslike particles in hamster embryos, fetuses, and tumors. Sobis, H., Vandeputte, M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  10. Albumin messenger RNA as a marker of circulating hepatocytes in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hillaire, S., Barbu, V., Boucher, E., Moukhtar, M., Poupon, R. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Increased permeability across the blood-nerve barrier of albumin glycated in vitro and in vivo from patients with diabetic polyneuropathy. Poduslo, J.F., Curran, G.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Population pharmacokinetics of total and unbound etoposide. Nguyen, L., Chatelut, E., Chevreau, C., Tranchand, B., Lochon, I., Bachaud, J.M., Pujol, A., Houin, G., Bugat, R., Canal, P. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Population pharmacokinetics of raltitrexed in patients with advanced solid tumours. Blair, E.Y., Rivory, L.P., Clarke, S.J., McLachlan, A.J. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Bancroftian filariasis: effect of repeated treatment with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole on microfilaraemia, antigenaemia and antifilarial antibodies. Helmy, H., Weil, G.J., Ellethy, A.S., Ahmed, E.S., Setouhy, M.E., Ramzy, R.M. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Impact of two annual single-dose mass drug administrations with diethylcarbamazine alone or in combination with albendazole on Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia and antigenaemia in south India. Rajendran, R., Sunish, I.P., Mani, T.R., Munirathinam, A., Abdullah, S.M., Arunachalam, N., Satyanarayana, K. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Correction of fructosamine value for serum albumin and globulin concentrations. Kunika, K., Itakura, M., Yamashita, K. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. The phylogeny of alpha-fetoprotein in vertebrates: survey of biochemical and physiological data. Mizejewski, G.J. Crit. Rev. Eukaryot. Gene Expr. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Map of seven polymorphic markers on rat chromosome 14: linkage conservation with human chromosome 4. Remmers, E.F., Goldmuntz, E.A., Cash, J.M., Zha, H., Crofford, L.J., Misiewicz-Poltorak, B., Mathern, P., Wilder, R.L. Mamm. Genome (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Alpha-fetoprotein in human fetal cerebrospinal fluid. Christiansen, M., Høgdall, C.K., Høgdall, E.V. Clin. Chim. Acta (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Plasma protein levels in normal human fetuses: 13 to 41 weeks' gestation. Fryer, A.A., Jones, P., Strange, R., Hume, R., Bell, J.E. British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Alzheimer disease with amygdala Lewy bodies: a distinct form of alpha-synucleinopathy. Uchikado, H., Lin, W.L., DeLucia, M.W., Dickson, D.W. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Distribution of albumin- and/or alpha-fetoprotein-positive cells in hepatocellular carcinoma. Kojiro, M., Kawano, Y., Isomura, T., Nakashima, T. Lab. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  23. Reversing effect of dimethyl-4,4'-dimethoxy-5,6,5', 6'-dimethylenedioxybiphenyl-2,2'-dicarboxylate (DDB) on the phenotypes of human hepatocarcinoma cells line. Liu, Z., Liu, G., Zhang, S. Cancer Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. The acute phase response in autologous bone marrow transplantation. Boosalis, M.G., Gray, D., Walker, S., Sutliff, S., Talwalker, R., Mazumder, A. Journal of medicine. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into hepatocytes in 2D and 3D culture systems in vitro. Baharvand, H., Hashemi, S.M., Kazemi Ashtiani, S., Farrokhi, A. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Postexercise protein metabolism in older and younger men following moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Sheffield-Moore, M., Yeckel, C.W., Volpi, E., Wolf, S.E., Morio, B., Chinkes, D.L., Paddon-Jones, D., Wolfe, R.R. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. The frequency and histology of hepatic tissue in germ cell tumors. Nakashima, N., Fukatsu, T., Nagasaka, T., Sobue, M., Takeuchi, J. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. Prealbumin in nutrition evaluation. Bernstein, L., Pleban, W. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Durability of the binding inhibition of albumin coating on tympanostomy tubes. Kinnari, T.J., Salonen, E.M., Jero, J. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Albumin stimulation of eosinophil migration involves PI3-kinases and is associated with diminished eosinophil CD49d and CD49f expression. Lampinen, M., Håkansson, L.D., Venge, P. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Mapping and conservation of the group-specific component gene in mouse. Yang, F., Bergeron, J.M., Linehan, L.A., Lalley, P.A., Sakaguchi, A.Y., Bowman, B.H. Genomics (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. A comparison of plasma protein changes induced by danazol, pregnancy, and estrogens. Laurell, C.B., Rannevik, G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1979) [Pubmed]
  33. Albumin gene encoding free fatty acid and beta-amyloid transporter is genetically associated with Alzheimer disease. Kimura, R., Kamino, K., Yamamoto, M., Kida, T., Akatsu, H., Uema, T., Kobayashi, T., Hattori, H., Nuripa, A., Nessa, B.N., Kazui, H., Ikejiri, Y., Tanaka, T., Tanii, H., Kudo, T., Yoneda, H., Yamagata, H., Miki, T., Takeda, M. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. Are single measurements of pseudocholinesterase and albumin markers for inflammatory activity or nutritional status in Crohn's disease? Novacek, G., Vogelsang, H., Schmidt, B., Lochs, H. Wien. Klin. Wochenschr. (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. Differentiation of human umbilical cord blood stem cells into hepatocytes in vivo and in vitro. Tang, X.P., Zhang, M., Yang, X., Chen, L.M., Zeng, Y. World J. Gastroenterol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  36. Conformational Study of Human Serum Albumin in Pre-denaturation Temperatures by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Circular Dichroism and UV Spectroscopy. Tavirani, M.R., Moghaddamnia, S.H., Ranjbar, B., Amani, M., Marashi, S.A. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  37. Effects of recombinant human growth hormone on remnant liver after hepatectomy in hepatocellular carcinoma with cirrhosis. Luo, S.M., Liang, L.J., Lai, J.M. World J. Gastroenterol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. Identification and purification of a high-affinity thyroxine binding protein that is distinct from albumin and prealbumin in the blood of a turtle, Trachemys scripta. Licht, P., Pavgi, S. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
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