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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Yolk Sac

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Disease relevance of Yolk Sac


Psychiatry related information on Yolk Sac


High impact information on Yolk Sac

  • However, yolk sac cells from AML1-ETO/+ mice differentiated into macrophages in haematopoietic colony forming unit (CFU) assays, unlike Cbfa2-/- or Cbfb-/-cells, which form no colonies in vitro [7].
  • In the latter we found Hey1 and Hey2 expression in yolk sacs to be strongly reduced [8].
  • Furthermore, c-myc(-/-) embryonic stem (ES) and yolk sac cells are compromised in their differentiative and growth potential [9].
  • Embryonic endothelial-like yolk sac cells expressing recombinant Del1 protein, or grown on an extracellular matrix containing Del1 protein, are inhibited from forming vascular-like structures [10].
  • The isolation of a novel Fc receptor (FcRY) from chicken yolk sac provides insight at the mechanistic level as to how avian maternal immunoglobulin (IgY) is transferred to offspring [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Yolk Sac


Biological context of Yolk Sac

  • The cultured rat embryo undergoing organogenesis (9.5-11.5 days of gestation) together with its associated yolk sac synthesize purine nucleotides via the de novo synthetic pathway [17].
  • We have also examined several features of c-myc genomic structure in F9 cells, PYS2 (differentiated parietal yolk sac) cells, and liver--namely, methylation, amplification, and gross organization [18].
  • 5. The E10 yolk sacs and embryos were easier to analyze for vascular phenotype than the fragile poorly formed 8.5 embryos [19].
  • Since the visceral yolk sac is a site of true placentation and nutrient transfer in the rodent, this raises the possibility that visceral yolk sac-derived retinol-binding protein and transthyretin may play important roles in the transport and delivery of retinol from the maternal blood to the developing fetus [20].
  • Retinoid signaling regulates primitive (yolk sac) hematopoiesis [21].

Anatomical context of Yolk Sac


Associations of Yolk Sac with chemical compounds


Gene context of Yolk Sac

  • 125I-TC-B12 was efficiently endocytosed in a RAP-inhibitable manner in megalin-expressing rat yolk sac carcinoma cells and in vivo microperfused rat proximal tubules [30].
  • Yolk sac cells also expressed low levels of CSF-1R mRNA [31].
  • Overexpression of the tumor suppressor PTEN or of dominant-negative constructs of PI 3-kinase inhibits angiogenesis in the yolk sac of chicken embryos, suggesting that PI 3-kinase and Akt signaling is required for normal embryonal angiogenesis [32].
  • Additionally, mRNA levels of Scl and Gata1 were reduced by approximately 80% in Klf6-/- yolk sacs [33].
  • We examined whole embryos or the cells isolated from embryo proper and yolk sacs and identified both Tpo and c-mpl (Tpo receptor) mRNA transcripts in tissues as early as embryonic day 6.5 (E6.5) [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Yolk Sac


  1. Immunofluorescent localization of alpha fetoprotein in yolk sac carcinomas of the rat. Delacourt, M.C., Sobis, H., Vandeputte, M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1976) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification and characterization of a new human ETS-family transcription factor, TEL2, that is expressed in hematopoietic tissues and can associate with TEL1/ETV6. Potter, M.D., Buijs, A., Kreider, B., van Rompaey, L., Grosveld, G.C. Blood (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Hepatocytic transcription factor expression in human embryonal carcinoma and yolk sac carcinoma cell lines: expression of HNF-3 alpha in models of early endodermal cell differentiation. Roach, S., Schmid, W., Pera, M.F. Exp. Cell Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Duck hepatitis B virus replicates in the yolk sac of developing embryos. Tagawa, M., Robinson, W.S., Marion, P.L. J. Virol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of a new missense mutation (Gly95Glu) in a highly conserved codon within the high-mobility group box of the sex-determining region Y gene: report on a 46,XY female with gonadal dysgenesis and yolk-sac tumor. Schäffler, A., Barth, N., Winkler, K., Zietz, B., Rümmele, P., Knüchel, R., Schölmerich, J., Palitzsch, K.D. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Physiological, biochemical and morphological studies of Baltic salmon yolk-sac fry with an experimental thiamine deficiency: relations to the M74 syndrome. Amcoff, P., Akerman, G., Tjärnlund, U., Börjeson, H., Norrgren, L., Balk, L. Aquat. Toxicol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Embryonic lethality and impairment of haematopoiesis in mice heterozygous for an AML1-ETO fusion gene. Yergeau, D.A., Hetherington, C.J., Wang, Q., Zhang, P., Sharpe, A.H., Binder, M., Marín-Padilla, M., Tenen, D.G., Speck, N.A., Zhang, D.E. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. The Notch target genes Hey1 and Hey2 are required for embryonic vascular development. Fischer, A., Schumacher, N., Maier, M., Sendtner, M., Gessler, M. Genes Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. c-Myc is essential for vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during development and tumor progression. Baudino, T.A., McKay, C., Pendeville-Samain, H., Nilsson, J.A., Maclean, K.H., White, E.L., Davis, A.C., Ihle, J.N., Cleveland, J.L. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Cloning and characterization of developmental endothelial locus-1: an embryonic endothelial cell protein that binds the alphavbeta3 integrin receptor. Hidai, C., Zupancic, T., Penta, K., Mikhail, A., Kawana, M., Quertermous, E.E., Aoka, Y., Fukagawa, M., Matsui, Y., Platika, D., Auerbach, R., Hogan, B.L., Snodgrass, R., Quertermous, T. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Acquiring maternal immunoglobulin; different receptors, similar functions. Ward, E.S. Immunity (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Changes in buoyant density relationships of two cell types of Coxiella burneti phase I. Wachter, R.F., Briggs, G.P., Gangemi, J.D., Pedersen, C.E. Infect. Immun. (1975) [Pubmed]
  13. Value of five tumor markers (AFP, CEA, hCG, hPL and SP1) in diagnosis and staging of testicular germ cell tumors. Szymendera, J.J., Zborzil, J., Sikorowa, L., Kamińska, J.A., Gadek, A. Oncology (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Hemodynamic dysfunction and cytochrome P4501A mRNA expression induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin during embryonic stages of lake trout development. Guiney, P.D., Walker, M.K., Spitsbergen, J.M., Peterson, R.E. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Arachidonic acid prevents hyperglycemia-associated yolk sac damage and embryopathy. Pinter, E., Reece, E.A., Leranth, C.Z., Garcia-Segura, M., Hobbins, J.C., Mahoney, M.J., Naftolin, F. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Water permeability and TCDD-induced edema in zebrafish early-life stages. Hill, A.J., Bello, S.M., Prasch, A.L., Peterson, R.E., Heideman, W. Toxicol. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. De novo purine synthesis in cultured rat embryos undergoing organogenesis. Rowe, P.B., McEwen, S.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Decreased c-myc expression is an early event in retinoic acid-induced differentiation of F9 teratocarcinoma cells. Griep, A.E., DeLuca, H.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Targeting of both mouse neuropilin-1 and neuropilin-2 genes severely impairs developmental yolk sac and embryonic angiogenesis. Takashima, S., Kitakaze, M., Asakura, M., Asanuma, H., Sanada, S., Tashiro, F., Niwa, H., Miyazaki Ji, J., Hirota, S., Kitamura, Y., Kitsukawa, T., Fujisawa, H., Klagsbrun, M., Hori, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Retinol-binding protein and transthyretin mRNA levels in visceral yolk sac and liver during fetal development in the rat. Soprano, D.R., Soprano, K.J., Goodman, D.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Retinoid signaling regulates primitive (yolk sac) hematopoiesis. Ghatpande, S., Ghatpande, A., Sher, J., Zile, M.H., Evans, T. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Gestational changes in calbindin-D9k in rat uterus, yolk sac, and placenta: implications for maternal-fetal calcium transport and uterine muscle function. Mathieu, C.L., Burnett, S.H., Mills, S.E., Overpeck, J.G., Bruns, D.E., Bruns, M.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. A single gene in mast cells encodes the core peptides of heparin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Tantravahi, R.V., Stevens, R.L., Austen, K.F., Weis, J.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Laminin and fibronectin in cell adhesion: enhanced adhesion of cells from regenerating liver to laminin. Carlsson, R., Engvall, E., Freeman, A., Ruoslahti, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  25. Hematopoietic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells progresses through sequential hematoendothelial, primitive, and definitive stages resembling human yolk sac development. Zambidis, E.T., Peault, B., Park, T.S., Bunz, F., Civin, C.I. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Leptin stimulates fetal and adult erythroid and myeloid development. Mikhail, A.A., Beck, E.X., Shafer, A., Barut, B., Gbur, J.S., Zupancic, T.J., Schweitzer, A.C., Cioffi, J.A., Lacaud, G., Ouyang, B., Keller, G., Snodgrass, H.R. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Molecular and biological properties of a macrophage colony-stimulating factor from mouse yolk sacs. Johnson, G.R., Burgess, A.W. J. Cell Biol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  28. Extrapancreatic insulin gene expression in the fetal rat. Muglia, L., Locker, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. Tissue-specific regulation of avian glutamine synthetase expression during development and in response to glucocorticoid hormones. Patejunas, G., Young, A.P. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  30. Megalin-mediated endocytosis of transcobalamin-vitamin-B12 complexes suggests a role of the receptor in vitamin-B12 homeostasis. Moestrup, S.K., Birn, H., Fischer, P.B., Petersen, C.M., Verroust, P.J., Sim, R.B., Christensen, E.I., Nexø, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Temporal expression and location of colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) and its receptor in the female reproductive tract are consistent with CSF-1-regulated placental development. Arceci, R.J., Shanahan, F., Stanley, E.R., Pollard, J.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  32. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling mediates angiogenesis and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in endothelial cells. Jiang, B.H., Zheng, J.Z., Aoki, M., Vogt, P.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Developmental regulation of yolk sac hematopoiesis by Kruppel-like factor 6. Matsumoto, N., Kubo, A., Liu, H., Akita, K., Laub, F., Ramirez, F., Keller, G., Friedman, S.L. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. Thrombopoietin promotes mixed lineage and megakaryocytic colony-forming cell growth but inhibits primitive and definitive erythropoiesis in cells isolated from early murine yolk sacs. Xie, X., Chan, R.J., Johnson, S.A., Starr, M., McCarthy, J., Kapur, R., Yoder, M.C. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Rat ceruloplasmin. Molecular cloning and gene expression in liver, choroid plexus, yolk sac, placenta, and testis. Aldred, A.R., Grimes, A., Schreiber, G., Mercer, J.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  36. Endocytic trafficking of megalin/RAP complexes: dissociation of the complexes in late endosomes. Czekay, R.P., Orlando, R.A., Woodward, L., Lundstrom, M., Farquhar, M.G. Mol. Biol. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. Expression of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in midgestation mouse yolk sac and mouse visceral yolk sac carcinoma cells. Sepulveda, A.R., Habib, G.M., Damjanov, A., Matacic, S., Damjanov, I., Lebovitz, R.M., Lieberman, M.W. Exp. Cell Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  38. Organ cultures of the embryonic rat parietal yolk sac. I. Morphologic and autoradiographic studies of the deposition of the collagen and noncollagen glycoprotein components of basement membrane. Minor, R.R., Hoch, P.S., Koszalka, T.R., Brent, R.L., Kefalides, N.A. Dev. Biol. (1976) [Pubmed]
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