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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The protein phosphatases involved in cellular regulation. 2. Glycogen metabolism.

The nature of protein phosphatases that are active against the phosphorylated proteins of glycogen metabolism was investigated in rabbit skeletal muscle and liver. Six 32P-labelled substrates corresponding to the major phosphorylation sites on glycogen phosphorylase, phosphorylase kinase, glycogen synthase and inhibitor-1 were used in these studies. The results showed that the four protein phosphatases defined in the preceding paper, namely protein phosphatases-1, 2A, 2B and 2C [Ingebritsen, T. S. and Cohen, P. (1983) Eur. J. Biochem. 132, 255-261] were the only significant enzymes acting on these substrates. The four enzymes can be conveniently separated and identified by a combination of ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration and by the use of specific inhibitors. Three species of protein phosphatase-2A were resolved on DEAE-cellulose, termed protein phosphatases-2Ao (0.12 M NaCl), 2A1 (0.2 M NaCl) and 2A2 (0.28 M NaCl) that had apparent molecular weights of 210000, 210000 and 150000 respectively. Protein phosphatase-2Ao was a completely inactive enzyme whose activity was only expressed after dissociation to a 34000-Mr(app) catalytic subunit by freezing and thawing in 0.2 M 2-mercaptoethanol. This treatment also dissociated protein phosphatases 2A1 and 2A2 to more active 34000-Mr(app) catalytic subunits. The catalytic subunits derived from protein phosphatases-2Ao, 2A1 and 2A2 possessed identical substrate specificities, preferentially dephosphorylated the alpha-subunit of phosphorylase kinase, were unaffected by inhibitor-1 and inhibitor-2 and were inhibited by similar concentrations of ATP. The properties of protein phosphatases-2A1 and 2A2 were very similar to those of the catalytic subunits, except that they were less sensitive to inhibition by ATP. Protein phosphatase-2B was eluted from DEAE-cellulose in the same fraction as protein phosphatase-2Ao. These activities were resolved by gel filtration, the Mr(app) of protein phosphatase-2B being 98000. Protein phosphatase-2B was completely inhibited by 100 microM trifluoperazine, which did not affect the activity of protein phosphatase-2Ao or any other protein phosphatase. Freezing and thawing in 0.2 M 2-mercaptoethanol resulted in partial inactivation of protein phosphatase-2B. Protein phosphatase-2C was eluted from DEAE-cellulose at the leading edge of the peak of protein phosphatase-2A1. These activities were completely resolved by gel filtration, since the Mr(app) of protein phosphatase-2C was 46000. Two forms of protein phosphatase-1 can be identified by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, namely protein phosphatase-1 itself and the Mg X ATP-dependent protein phosphatase. Both these species were eluted at 0.16 M NaCl just ahead of protein phosphatases-2C and 2A1. These enzymes did not interfere with measurements of type-2 protein phosphatases, since it was possible to block their activity with inhibitor-2...[1]


  1. The protein phosphatases involved in cellular regulation. 2. Glycogen metabolism. Ingebritsen, T.S., Foulkes, J.G., Cohen, P. Eur. J. Biochem. (1983) [Pubmed]
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