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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Uptake of calcium by the endoplasmic reticulum of the frog photoreceptor.

We studied retinal photoreceptors of Rana pipiens by using techniques designed to investigate calcium localization. Particularly useful were methods in which intracellular sites of calcium uptake were detected by incubation of saponin-treated isolated retinas in calcium-containing media, with oxalate present as a trapping agent. With these procedures, cell compartments accumulate deposits, which can be shown to contain calcium by x-ray microanalysis. Calcium accumulation was prominent in the rough endoplasmic reticulum in the myoid region. In addition, deposits were observed in agranular reticulum and in certain Golgi-associated compartments of the myoid region, in mitochondria, in axonal reticulum, and in agranular reticulum of presynaptic terminals. Calcium was also detected in the endoplasmic reticulum of retinas fixed directly upon isolation, by a freeze-substitution method. The factors influencing accumulation of calcium in the endoplasmic reticulum were evaluated by a semiquantitative approach based on determining the relative frequency of calcium oxalate crystals under varying conditions. Calcium accumulation was markedly enhanced by ATP. Studies with a nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue (adenylyl- imidodiphosphate ) and with inhibitors of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-Mg2+ ATPase (mersalyl and tetracaine) indicated that this ATP-dependent calcium uptake reflects an energy-dependent process roughly comparable to that in the sarcoplasmic reticulum.[1]


  1. Uptake of calcium by the endoplasmic reticulum of the frog photoreceptor. Ungar, F., Piscopo, I., Letizia, J., Holtzman, E. J. Cell Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
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