The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

4-Hydroxylation of estradiol by human uterine myometrium and myoma microsomes: implications for the mechanism of uterine tumorigenesis.

Estradiol is converted to catechol estrogens via 2- and 4-hydroxylation by cytochrome P450 enzymes. 4-Hydroxyestradiol elicits biological activities distinct from estradiol, most notably an oxidant stress response induced by free radicals generated by metabolic redox cycling reactions. In this study, we have examined 2- and 4-hydroxylation of estradiol by microsomes of human uterine myometrium and of associated myomata. In all eight cases studied, estradiol 4-hydroxylation by myoma has been substantially elevated relative to surrounding myometrial tissue (minimum, 2-fold; mean, 5-fold). Estradiol 2-hydroxylation in myomata occurs at much lower rates than 4-hydroxylation (ratio of 4-hydroxyestradiol/2-hydroxyestradiol, 7.9 +/- 1.4) and does not significantly differ from rates in surrounding myometrial tissue. Rates of myometrial 2-hydroxylation of estradiol were also not significantly different from values in patients without myomata. We have used various inhibitors to establish that 4-hydroxylation is catalyzed by a completely different cytochrome P450 than 2-hydroxylation. In myoma, alpha-naphthoflavone and a set of ethynyl polycyclic hydrocarbon inhibitors (5 microM) each inhibited 4-hydroxylation more efficiently (up to 90%) than 2-hydroxylation (up to 40%), indicating > 10-fold differences in Ki (<0.5 microM vs. > 5 microM). These activities were clearly distinguished from the selective 2-hydroxylation of estradiol in placenta by aromatase reported previously (low Km, inhibition by Fadrozole hydrochloride or ICI D1033). 4-Hydroxylation was also selectively inhibited relative to 2-hydroxylation by antibodies raised against cytochrome P450 IB1 (rat) (53 vs. 17%). These data indicate that specific 4-hydroxylation of estradiol in human uterine tissues is catalyzed by a form(s) of cytochrome P450 related to P450 IB1, which contribute(s) little to 2-hydroxylation. This enzyme(s) is therefore a marker for uterine myomata and may play a role in the etiology of the tumor.[1]


  1. 4-Hydroxylation of estradiol by human uterine myometrium and myoma microsomes: implications for the mechanism of uterine tumorigenesis. Liehr, J.G., Ricci, M.J., Jefcoate, C.R., Hannigan, E.V., Hokanson, J.A., Zhu, B.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities