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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Myoma

  • Finally, we confirm a less but specific immunostaining for Epo in uterine myomas of patients without erythrocytosis and, as a first in the literature, we prove a weak and sporadic Epo-R expression in these lesions [1].
  • Ultrastructural comparison of uterine leiomyoma cells from the same myoma nodule before and after gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment [2].
  • Gossypol treatment of endometriosis and uterine myomas in 15 cases was started with a daily dose of 20 mg of gossypol-acetic acid twice a day for 20 days as a loading dose, followed by 40 mg (20 mg twice weekly) [3].
  • It is now evident that the use of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNg-IUS) is effective for long-term management of menorrhagic women with uterine myomas because of a striking reduction in menorrhagia [4].
  • It often appeared in patients with low body weight or a second invasive malignancy, but seldom occurred in young patients or patients with diabetes, uterine myoma, or a history of previous estrogen use [5].

High impact information on Myoma

  • Uterine myomas are being treated effectively with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues [6].
  • In all eight cases studied, estradiol 4-hydroxylation by myoma has been substantially elevated relative to surrounding myometrial tissue (minimum, 2-fold; mean, 5-fold) [7].
  • In myoma, alpha-naphthoflavone and a set of ethynyl polycyclic hydrocarbon inhibitors (5 microM) each inhibited 4-hydroxylation more efficiently (up to 90%) than 2-hydroxylation (up to 40%), indicating > 10-fold differences in Ki (<0.5 microM vs. > 5 microM) [7].
  • 4-Hydroxylation of estradiol by human uterine myometrium and myoma microsomes: implications for the mechanism of uterine tumorigenesis [7].
  • Ipriflavone efficaciously alleviated the adverse effects of estrogen deficiency such as bone loss and increase in LDL-C level, and the ability of leuprolide therapy to reduce myoma volume was not decreased by ipriflavone administration [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Myoma

  • In this 2-yr study, women with myomas were treated with GnRH-a plus one of two steroid "add-back" regimens to minimize adverse sequelae of chronic hypoestrogenism [9].
  • Fifty-one premenopausal women with large, symptomatic uterine myomas all received the GnRH-a, leuprolide acetate depot (LAD), every 4 weeks for 12 weeks at which time the women were randomized to receive LAD plus either an estrogen-progestin or progestin-only add-back regimen for an additional 92 weeks [9].
  • The level of typical biomarker of oxidative stress 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine is higher in uterine myomas than in control tissues and correlates with the size of the tumor [10].
  • The purpose of this review is to highlight the biochemical, histologic, and clinical evidence that supports an equally important role for progesterone in the growth of uterine myomas [11].
  • In 17 women with refractory bleeding after myoma resection a dilute vasopressin pack was applied [12].

Biological context of Myoma


Anatomical context of Myoma


Gene context of Myoma

  • A pathogenetic role of bFGF, VEGF, and PDGF in myoma growth and vascularization is suggested [20].
  • The immunoexpression of bFGF, VEGF, and PDGF decreased in treated myomas, together with the total number of vessels and the angiogenetic vessels [20].
  • Decreased MVD and an increased VLA in myomas were found with FvW and CD34 labeling [21].
  • FGFR-2 is expressed in both myometrial and myoma tissues [22].
  • Immunodetection of CS-6 and PG-M/version with the use of monoclonal antibodies 3-B-3 and 2-B-1 is therefore recommended as a useful tool in differentiating odontogenic myoma from myxoid MFH [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Myoma


  1. Erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor system in a large uterine myoma of a patient with myomatous erythrocytosis syndrome: possible relationship with the pathogenesis of unusual tumor size. Pollio, F., Staibano, S., Mansueto, G., De Rosa, G., Persico, F., De Falco, M., Di Lieto, A. Hum. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Ultrastructural comparison of uterine leiomyoma cells from the same myoma nodule before and after gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment. Ito, F., Kawamura, N., Ichimura, T., Tsujimura, A., Ishiko, O., Ogita, S. Fertil. Steril. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Electron microscopic observations of the effects of gossypol on the human endometrium. Zu, P.D., Sun, Y.T., Cheng, J., Tian, L., Dang, M.Y., Han, M.L. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of progesterone on growth factor expression in human uterine leiomyoma. Maruo, T., Matsuo, H., Shimomura, Y., Kurachi, O., Gao, Z., Nakago, S., Yamada, T., Chen, W., Wang, J. Steroids (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Clinical outcome in endometrial cancer. Kauppila, A., Grönroos, M., Nieminen, U. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. Obstetrics and gynecology. Quilligan, E.J. JAMA (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. 4-Hydroxylation of estradiol by human uterine myometrium and myoma microsomes: implications for the mechanism of uterine tumorigenesis. Liehr, J.G., Ricci, M.J., Jefcoate, C.R., Hannigan, E.V., Hokanson, J.A., Zhu, B.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Efficacy of ipriflavone in preventing adverse effects of leuprolide. Somekawa, Y., Chiguchi, M., Ishibashi, T., Wakana, K., Aso, T. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. A prospective, randomized trial of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist plus estrogen-progestin or progestin "add-back" regimens for women with leiomyomata uteri. Friedman, A.J., Daly, M., Juneau-Norcross, M., Rein, M.S., Fine, C., Gleason, R., Leboff, M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. The level of typical biomarker of oxidative stress 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine is higher in uterine myomas than in control tissues and correlates with the size of the tumor. Foksinski, M., Kotzbach, R., Szymanski, W., Olinski, R. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Advances in uterine leiomyoma research: the progesterone hypothesis. Rein, M.S. Environ. Health Perspect. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Vasopressin pack for treatment of bleeding after myoma resection. Townsend, D.E. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Chorionic villi sampling for early prenatal diagnosis: an option for the Jewish orthodox community. Zakut, H., Zamir, R., Yemini, O., Sindel, L., Kohn, G. Clin. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. The influence of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analog on serum leptin and body composition in women with solitary uterine myoma. Nowicki, M., Adamkiewicz, G., Bryc, W., Kokot, F. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Pregnancy after embolization of uterine myoma: report of 12 cases. Ravina, J.H., Vigneron, N.C., Aymard, A., Le Dref, O., Merland, J.J. Fertil. Steril. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone specific binding sites in uterine leiomyomata. Wiznitzer, A., Marbach, M., Hazum, E., Insler, V., Sharoni, Y., Levy, J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Lymphotoxin production by regional lymph node lymphocytes in patients with uterine cervical cancer. Matsunaga, K., Mashiba, H., Kurano, A., Jimi, S. J. Clin. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Nitric oxide synthesis in human nonpregnant myometrium and uterine myomas. Favini, R., Aldieri, E., Revelli, A., Bosia, A., Massobrio, M., Ghigo, D. Fertil. Steril. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Estrogen receptor in human myoma tissue. Puukka, M.J., Kontula, K.K., Kauppila, A.J., Janne, O.A., Vihko, R.K. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  20. Clinical response, vascular change, and angiogenesis in gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue-treated women with uterine myomas. Di Lieto, A., De Falco, M., Pollio, F., Mansueto, G., Salvatore, G., Somma, P., Ciociola, F., De Rosa, G., Staibano, S. J. Soc. Gynecol. Investig. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Expression of von Willebrand's factor, CD34, CD31, and vascular endothelial growth factor in uterine leiomyomas. Poncelet, C., Madelenat, P., Feldmann, G., Walker, F., Darai, E. Fertil. Steril. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Differential expression of keratinocyte growth factor and its receptor in the human uterus. Pekonen, F., Nyman, T., Rutanen, E.M. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Immunohistochemical and histochemical characterization of the mucosubstances of odontogenic myxoma: histogenesis and differential diagnosis. Zhao, M., Lu, Y., Takata, T., Ogawa, I., Miyauchi, M., Mock, D., Nikai, H. Pathol. Res. Pract. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Propofol/sufentanil anesthesia suppresses the metabolic and endocrine response during, not after, lower abdominal surgery. Schricker, T., Carli, F., Schreiber, M., Wachter, U., Geisser, W., Lattermann, R., Georgieff, M. Anesth. Analg. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Correlation between shrinkage of uterine leiomyoma treated with buserelin acetate and histopathologic findings of biopsy specimen before treatment. Kawamura, N., Ito, F., Ichimura, T., Shibata, S., Umesaki, N., Ogita, S. Fertil. Steril. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Relationship between gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and myoma cellular activity: preliminary findings on positron emission tomography. Lee, W.L., Liu, R.S., Yuan, C.C., Chao, H.T., Wang, P.H. Fertil. Steril. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Gestrinone in the treatment of uterine leiomyomata: effects on uterine blood supply. La Marca, A., Giulini, S., Vito, G., Orvieto, R., Volpe, A., Jasonni, V.M. Fertil. Steril. (2004) [Pubmed]
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