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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The mutagenicity of Gramoxone (paraquat) on different eukaryotic systems.

The possible mutagenicity of the herbicide Gramoxone was evaluated using five different living systems: Allium cepa, Vicia faba, yeast, Drosophila melanogaster and human lymphocytes. The results indicate that Gramoxone has mutagenic activity at the cytological level in Allium cepa, Vicia faba and human lymphocytes. All doses were effective in inducing chromosomal abnormalities and a clear dose-response relationship was observed in the various cytological tests. Analysis of chromosomal abnormalities revealed that this herbicide displays clastogenic and turbagenic activities. At the gene mutation level Gramoxone induced gene conversion at the trp-5 locus and reversion at the ilv locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In Drosophila melanogaster, Gramoxone proved to be mutagenic to germ cells and induced a high frequency of sex-linked recessive lethals (SLRL). At the protein level, Gramoxone had detectable mutagenic effects on the genetic background of two enzymes, Adh and Est-6. Gramoxone should be considered a mutagenic herbicide.[1]


  1. The mutagenicity of Gramoxone (paraquat) on different eukaryotic systems. el-Abidin Salam, A.Z., Hussein, E.H., el-Itriby, H.A., Anwar, W.A., Mansour, S.A. Mutat. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
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