The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Est-6  -  Esterase 6

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG6917, Carboxylesterase-6, Carboxylic-ester hydrolase 6, Dmel\CG6917, EST-5, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Psychiatry related information on Est-6

  • Our observations agree with previous results for D. melanogaster and provide additional support to our hypothesis that after the duplication event Est-6 retained the esterase-coding function and its role during copulation, while psiEst-6 lost that function but now operates in conjunction with Est-6 as an intergene [1].

High impact information on Est-6


Biological context of Est-6

  • Comparison of the genomic and cDNA sequences revealed that the Est-6 gene comprises two exons, one of 1,387 bp and one of 248 bp, separated by a short intron of 51 bp [4].
  • The consistent Est-6 clines are attributed to latitudinal selection gradients but not consistent correlations are found between Est-6 gene frequencies and maximum or minimum temperature or rainfall which might be associated with these gradients [5].
  • Comparisons of the 5'-flanking DNA of Est-5B and Est-6 reveal four short conserved sequence elements, but the remaining upstream sequences show no significant similarity [6].
  • The patterns of nucleotide substitutions and amino acid replacements between Est-5B and Est-6 are consistent with the hypothesis that mutation and genetic drift are responsible for the differences between these two genes [6].
  • Conservation in the 3'-flanking DNA is limited to the presence of two polyadenylation sites that may correlate with the existence of two transcripts from both Est-5B and Est-6 [6].

Anatomical context of Est-6

  • We have identified four independently acting Est-6 regulatory regions that direct the expression of lacZ in (i) the ejaculatory duct; (ii) the adult salivary glands; (iii) the respiratory system, prefrons, antennae, and maxillary palps; and (iv) the ejaculatory bulb and prefrons [3].
  • The genetic bases of the differences between D. melanogaster and the other species are investigated through germ line transfer of the D. simulans and D. mauritiana Est-6 genes plus 1.2 kb of 5' and 0.2 kb of their 3' flanking sequences into D. melanogaster [7].
  • EST 5 is expressed in the eyes and hemolymph of transformed D. melanogaster just as it is in D. pseudoobscura, but it is not detectable in the ejaculatory duct, where the homologous enzyme, EST 6, is most abundant [8].
  • Hemolymph is a conserved ancestral site of EST6 activity in Drosophila and the primary sequences regulating its activity lie between -171 and -25 bp relative to the translation initiation site: deletion of these sequences decrease activity approximately 20-fold [9].

Associations of Est-6 with chemical compounds

  • At the protein level, Gramoxone had detectable mutagenic effects on the genetic background of two enzymes, Adh and Est-6 [10].
  • Molecular cloning and characterization of esterase-6, a serine hydrolase of Drosophila [11].
  • Physiological studies of the control of EST 6 levels reveal that both juvenile hormone and 20 hydroxyecdysone stimulate the production of EST 6 activity in adult males [12].
  • Reexamination of the electrophoretic mobilities of esterases encoded by the Est-alpha and the Est-beta alleles of Drosophila virilis was carried out in detail using both thin-layer agar gel and polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis [13].

Other interactions of Est-6

  • Further sequencing revealed the presence of a tandem duplication of the Est-6 gene (denoted Est-P) which also has an exon of 1,387 bp and an exon of 248 bp, separated by a short intron of 56 bp [4].
  • Latitudinal relationships of esterase-6 and phosphoglucomutase gene frequencies in Drosophila melanogaster [5].
  • The transversion/transition ratio is more than five times larger in Sod than in Est-6 [14].
  • Idh is ten map units to the left of Est-6, Odh twelve map units to the right and Ao is seven units beyond Odh [15].
  • A clone of the esterase-5 (Est-5) gene from Drosophila pseudoobscura has been isolated by hybridization to the cloned Est-6 gene of D. melanogaster [6].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Est-6

  • Sequence analysis indicates that Est-5B encodes a 545-amino-acid protein and is composed of two exons separated by a 55-bp intron in the same position as the 51-bp intron in Est-6 [6].
  • Radial immunodiffusion assays with polyclonal anti-EST6 antibody established that differences among lines in male EST6 activity were largely due to differences in the number of EST6 protein molecules, with negligible differences in their specific activities [16].


  1. Entropy and GC Content in the beta-esterase gene cluster of the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup. Balakirev, E.S., Chechetkin, V.R., Lobzin, V.V., Ayala, F.J. Mol. Biol. Evol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Divergent and conserved features in the spatial expression of the Drosophila pseudoobscura esterase-5B gene and the esterase-6 gene of Drosophila melanogaster. Tamarina, N.A., Ludwig, M.Z., Richmond, R.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Localization of sequences controlling the spatial, temporal, and sex-specific expression of the esterase 6 locus in Drosophila melanogaster adults. Ludwig, M.Z., Tamarina, N.A., Richmond, R.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular analysis of duplicated esterase genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Collet, C., Nielsen, K.M., Russell, R.J., Karl, M., Oakeshott, J.G., Richmond, R.C. Mol. Biol. Evol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Latitudinal relationships of esterase-6 and phosphoglucomutase gene frequencies in Drosophila melanogaster. Oakeshott, J.G., Chambers, G.K., Gibson, J.B., Willcocks, D.A. Heredity (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Cloning of the esterase-5 locus from Drosophila pseudoobscura and comparison with its homologue in D. melanogaster. Brady, J.P., Richmond, R.C., Oakeshott, J.G. Mol. Biol. Evol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Regulatory aspects of esterase 6 activity variation in sibling Drosophila species. Karotam, J., Oakeshott, J.G. Heredity (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular analysis of evolutionary changes in the expression of Drosophila esterases. Brady, J.P., Richmond, R.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Localization of sequences regulating ancestral and acquired sites of esterase6 activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Healy, M.J., Dumancic, M.M., Cao, A., Oakeshott, J.G. Mol. Biol. Evol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. The mutagenicity of Gramoxone (paraquat) on different eukaryotic systems. el-Abidin Salam, A.Z., Hussein, E.H., el-Itriby, H.A., Anwar, W.A., Mansour, S.A. Mutat. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of esterase-6, a serine hydrolase of Drosophila. Oakeshott, J.G., Collet, C., Phillis, R.W., Nielsen, K.M., Russell, R.J., Chambers, G.K., Ross, V., Richmond, R.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Genetic and hormonal regulation of esterase 6 activity in male Drosophila melanogaster. Richmond, R.C., Tepper, C.S. Isozymes Curr. Top. Biol. Med. Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Further genetic variation at the esterase loci of Drosophila virilis. Tsuno, K., Aotsuka, N.T., Ohba, S. Biochem. Genet. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Molecular evolution of two linked genes, Est-6 and Sod, in Drosophila melanogaster. Balakirev, E.S., Balakirev, E.I., Rodríguez-Trelles, F., Ayala, F.J. Genetics (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. A survey of isozyme polymorphism in a Drosophila melanogaster natural population. Band, H.T. Genetics (1975) [Pubmed]
  16. Variation in the amount and activity of esterase 6 in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster. Game, A.Y., Oakeshott, J.G. Heredity (1989) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities