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Chemical Compound Review

PARAQUAT     1-methyl-4-(1-methylpyridin- 4-yl)pyridine

Synonyms: Starfire, Weedol, Spraytop-graze, Dextrone X, Paraquat ion, ...
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Disease relevance of PARAQUAT

  • However, though compounds 2 and 3 catalyzed the production of O2-. in E. coli cells, their activity of O2-. production was much lower than that of compound 1 or PQ2+ [1].
  • Paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium, PQ) is a herbicide to possibly induce Parkinson's disease (PD), since a strong correlation has been found between the incidence of the disease and the amount of PQ used [2].
  • Mild poisoning occurs after the ingestion or injection of less than 20 mg of paraquat ion/kg body weight [3].
  • This lends support to the general experience that the primary target organ for paraquat (PQ) toxicity is the lung [4].

High impact information on PARAQUAT

  • The Km was not appreciably changed for DHAD that was 50 and 70% inactivated in cells, respectively, by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and PQ, compared to cells in exponential, aerobic growth [5].
  • Addition of compounds 1, 2, and 3 to aerobic E. coli cell suspensions caused extracellular ferricytochrome c reduction, which was inhibited by superoxide dismutase in the same manner as that in the case of PQ2+ [1].
  • DAergic neurons, as a population, are inherently vulnerable to oxidative stress, and the disruption of antioxidant systems by the fungicide MB may contribute to the neurodegeneration of these cells, especially with concurrent exposures to other environmentally relevant oxidative stressors, such as PQ [6].
  • Zn, which bound to MT induced by PQ, was displaced by the administration of Cd [7].
  • The distribution of the non-selective herbicide paraquat was examined in the brain following subcutaneous administration of 20 mg kg-1 paraquat ion containing [14C]paraquat to male adult rats in order to determine whether paraquat crosses the blood/brain barrier [8].

Anatomical context of PARAQUAT


Associations of PARAQUAT with other chemical compounds


Gene context of PARAQUAT

  • Highest %T values (Mean +/- 1 SD) were obtained from a monocrystal type of bracket (Starfire ["A" Company, San Diego, Calif.] 35.02 +/- 1.59%), followed by a polycrystalline (Fascination [Dentaurum, Pforzhein, Germany] 5.70 +/- 1.41%) and a ceramic/polycarbonate base one (Ceramaflex [TP Orthodontics, Inc., La Porte, Ind.] 4.02 +/- 0.96%) [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PARAQUAT


  1. Toxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium derivatives in Escherichia coli. Mitsumoto, A., Nagano, T., Hirobe, M. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Paraquat leads to dopaminergic neural vulnerability in organotypic midbrain culture. Shimizu, K., Matsubara, K., Ohtaki, K., Shiono, H. Neurosci. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Paraquat poisoning: clinical features and immediate general management. Vale, J.A., Meredith, T.J., Buckley, B.M. Human toxicology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. In vivo redox changes in some organs in response to Gramoxone. Matkovics, B., Barabás, K., Kálmán, E., Puppi, A. Acta. Biol. Hung. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Dihydroxy-acid dehydratase, a [4Fe-4S] cluster-containing enzyme in Escherichia coli: effects of intracellular superoxide dismutase on its inactivation by oxidant stress. Brown, O.R., Smyk-Randall, E., Draczynska-Lusiak, B., Fee, J.A. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Modulation of antioxidant defense systems by the environmental pesticide maneb in dopaminergic cells. Barlow, B.K., Lee, D.W., Cory-Slechta, D.A., Opanashuk, L.A. Neurotoxicology (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Property of metallothionein as a Zn pool differs depending on the induced condition of metallothionein. Kondoh, M., Imada, N., Kamada, K., Tsukahara, R., Higashimoto, M., Takiguchi, M., Watanabe, Y., Sato, M. Toxicol. Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Further evidence that the blood/brain barrier impedes paraquat entry into the brain. Naylor, J.L., Widdowson, P.S., Simpson, M.G., Farnworth, M., Ellis, M.K., Lock, E.A. Human & experimental toxicology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Paraquat2+/H+ exchange in isolated renal brush-border membrane vesicles. Wright, S.H., Wunz, T.M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Impact resistance of ceramic brackets according to ophthalmic lenses standards. Matasa, C.G. American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics : official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Direct light transmittance through ceramic brackets. Eliades, T., Johnston, W.M., Eliades, G. American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics : official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibody prevents paraquat accumulation into rat lung slices. Wright, A.F., Green, T.P., Robson, R.T., Niewola, Z., Wyatt, I., Smith, L.L. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. The influence of bracket material, ligation force and wear on frictional resistance of orthodontic brackets. Keith, O., Jones, S.P., Davies, E.H. British journal of orthodontics. (1993) [Pubmed]
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