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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Light and electron microscopy of hydroxyapatite depositions in the ligamentum flavum.

STUDY DESIGN. Ligamenta flava obtained from 24 patients who had undergone surgery for degenerative spinal diseases were investigated regarding the histopathology of hydroxyapatite crystal depositions. OBJECTIVES. Light and electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis were done to clarify the cause and process of hydroxyapatite crystal depositions in the ligament. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. No reports have been made regarding the cause of calcification in the ligamenta flava induced by hydroxyapatite crystal depositions. METHODS. Samples were fixed in 10% formalin and 2.5% glutaraldehyde for light and electron microscopy. Energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis was done to detect calcium and phosphate hydroxyapatite crystal deposition areas. RESULTS. Hydroxyapatite crystals, which occasionally formed clusters, existed in the connective tissue of the dural side around abundant profiles of growing capillaries. Hydroxyapatite crystals showed needle shaped figures, and the x-ray microanalysis revealed that the ratio of calcium to phosphate was about 1.66:1. A decrease or loss of collagenous and elastic fibers was prominent in these hydroxyapatite deposition areas. CONCLUSIONS. Hydroxyapatite crystal depositions occur around the growing capillaries in the dural side of the ligamenta flava.[1]


  1. Light and electron microscopy of hydroxyapatite depositions in the ligamentum flavum. Hijioka, A., Suzuki, K., Nakamura, T., Yokoyama, M., Kanazawa, Y. Spine. (1994) [Pubmed]
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