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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Transvaginal ultrasonic assessment of the response to clomiphene citrate in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between some ovarian morphological findings based on transvaginal ultrasound (US) and the clomiphene citrate (CC) responsiveness in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). DESIGN: A comparative study of ovarian US features between the CC responders and the CC nonresponders. SETTING: Infertility and Endocrine Clinic, Department of Obstetrics Gynecology, Shimane Medical University Hospital, Izumo, Japan. PATIENTS: Forty-seven infertile patients with PCOS and 30 healthy volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: A dose of 50 to 200 mg/d CC was given for ovulation induction in patients with PCOS. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ovarian volume and number of follicles; serum LH, FSH, T, delta 4 androstenedione, and DHEAS. RESULTS: The mean ovarian volume (11.9 mL) and the number of small follicles (13.0) were significantly larger in the CC nonresponders compared with those of the CC responders (7.9 mL and 7.0, respectively). Only 47% of the CC responders and 79% of the CC nonresponders had bilaterally enlarged ovaries (> 6.2 mL). Considerable overlap existed between the different groups. However, 96% of the CC nonresponders had a significantly increased number of follicles (> or = 10 follicles) in each ovary compared with that (16%) of the CC responders. Furthermore, with the combination of these parameters, none of the CC nonresponders had bilaterally normal ovaries, and 96% of patients with PCOS with bilaterally abnormal ovaries were CC nonresponsive. CONCLUSIONS: Small multiple follicles (> or = 10) and enlarged ovarian volume (> 6.2 mL) were the most prominent transvaginal US features of ovaries in patients with PCOS with CC nonresponsiveness. These US features could be clinically useful for distinguishing clearly a CC nonresponder from a CC responder.[1]


  1. Transvaginal ultrasonic assessment of the response to clomiphene citrate in polycystic ovarian syndrome. Takahashi, K., Uchida, A., Yamasaki, H., Ozaki, T., Kitao, M. Fertil. Steril. (1994) [Pubmed]
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