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Gene Review

PCOS1  -  polycystic ovary syndrome 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: PCO, PCO1
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Disease relevance of PCOS1


Psychiatry related information on PCOS1

  • METHODS: Three hundred women 18 to 45 years old with bipolar disorder were evaluated for PCOS at 16 Systematic Treatment Enhancement for Bipolar Disorder sites [6].
  • Modifying additional lifestyle factors, including alcohol consumption, psychosocial stressors and smoking, are also crucial in long-term treatment of PCOS [7].
  • Health-related quality of life measured with the 36-item short-form health survey revealed significantly decreased scores for physical role function, bodily pain, vitality, social function, emotional role function, and mental health in patients with PCOS [8].
  • Menstrual abnormalities and polycystic ovary syndrome in women taking valproate for bipolar mood disorder [9].
  • It is proposed that these closely interlinked phenomena that, particularly in overweight subjects, are associated with anovulation, may confer a biological advantage for women with PCOS at times of food deprivation, when such women may reproduce more successfully than those without PCOS [10].

High impact information on PCOS1


Chemical compound and disease context of PCOS1


Biological context of PCOS1


Anatomical context of PCOS1


Associations of PCOS1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of PCOS1


Regulatory relationships of PCOS1


Other interactions of PCOS1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PCOS1

  • METHODS: We performed oral glucose-tolerance tests before and after the administration of 500 mg of metformin or placebo three times daily for 35 days in 61 obese women with the polycystic ovary syndrome [12].
  • Gynecologists, endocrinologists, cardiologists, pediatricians, and dermatologists are all concerned with PCOS patients and share research data and design clinical trials to learn more about the syndrome [37].
  • Future studies to identify the risk of cardiovascular events in women with PCOS will benefit from clear and extensive phenotyping of PCOS abnormalities at baseline, from a prospective design, from larger sample sizes, and from longer follow-up [19].
  • Epidemiological studies that have focused on isolated signs and stigmata of PCOS, such as polycystic ovaries, hyperandrogenism, or chronic anovulation, have found mixed results [19].
  • The INS VNTR III/III genotype was associated with an increased risk of PCOS in two independent case-control studies (odds ratios 8.20 [p = 0.005] and 5.70 [p = 0.043]) [38].


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  2. Priming with human chorionic gonadotropin before retrieval of immature oocytes in women with infertility due to the polycystic ovary syndrome. Chian, R.C., Gülekli, B., Buckett, W.M., Tan, S.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Ovulatory and metabolic effects of D-chiro-inositol in the polycystic ovary syndrome. Nestler, J.E., Jakubowicz, D.J., Reamer, P., Gunn, R.D., Allan, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Detection of an alteration in the insulin-receptor gene in a patient with insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, and the polycystic ovary syndrome (type A insulin resistance). Moller, D.E., Flier, J.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Insulin resistance and the polycystic ovary syndrome: mechanism and implications for pathogenesis. Dunaif, A. Endocr. Rev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Valproate is associated with new-onset oligoamenorrhea with hyperandrogenism in women with bipolar disorder. Joffe, H., Cohen, L.S., Suppes, T., McLaughlin, W.L., Lavori, P., Adams, J.M., Hwang, C.H., Hall, J.E., Sachs, G.S. Biol. Psychiatry (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. The role of lifestyle modification in polycystic ovary syndrome. Norman, R.J., Davies, M.J., Lord, J., Moran, L.J. Trends Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Quality of life, psychosocial well-being, and sexual satisfaction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Elsenbruch, S., Hahn, S., Kowalsky, D., Offner, A.H., Schedlowski, M., Mann, K., Janssen, O.E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Menstrual abnormalities and polycystic ovary syndrome in women taking valproate for bipolar mood disorder. O'Donovan, C., Kusumakar, V., Graves, G.R., Bird, D.C. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Nutrition, insulin and polycystic ovary syndrome. Franks, S., Robinson, S., Willis, D.S. Rev. Reprod. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Mutations in the genes encoding 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase interact to cause cortisone reductase deficiency. Draper, N., Walker, E.A., Bujalska, I.J., Tomlinson, J.W., Chalder, S.M., Arlt, W., Lavery, G.G., Bedendo, O., Ray, D.W., Laing, I., Malunowicz, E., White, P.C., Hewison, M., Mason, P.J., Connell, J.M., Shackleton, C.H., Stewart, P.M. Nat. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of metformin on spontaneous and clomiphene-induced ovulation in the polycystic ovary syndrome. Nestler, J.E., Jakubowicz, D.J., Evans, W.S., Pasquali, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Decreases in ovarian cytochrome P450c17 alpha activity and serum free testosterone after reduction of insulin secretion in polycystic ovary syndrome. Nestler, J.E., Jakubowicz, D.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Polycystic ovary syndrome as a form of functional ovarian hyperandrogenism due to dysregulation of androgen secretion. Ehrmann, D.A., Barnes, R.B., Rosenfield, R.L. Endocr. Rev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Follicle-stimulating hormone is secreted more irregularly than luteinizing hormone in both humans and sheep. Pincus, S.M., Padmanabhan, V., Lemon, W., Randolph, J., Rees Midgley, A. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. 5 alpha-reductase activity in polycystic ovary syndrome. Stewart, P.M., Shackleton, C.H., Beastall, G.H., Edwards, C.R. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Serine phosphorylation of human P450c17 increases 17,20-lyase activity: implications for adrenarche and the polycystic ovary syndrome. Zhang, L.H., Rodriguez, H., Ohno, S., Miller, W.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Pituitary-ovarian responses to nafarelin testing in the polycystic ovary syndrome. Barnes, R.B., Rosenfield, R.L., Burstein, S., Ehrmann, D.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Polycystic ovary syndrome and cardiovascular disease: a premature association? Legro, R.S. Endocr. Rev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. The molecular-genetic basis of functional hyperandrogenism and the polycystic ovary syndrome. Escobar-Morreale, H.F., Luque-Ramírez, M., San Millán, J.L. Endocr. Rev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome. Evidence of dysregulation of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Rodin, A., Thakkar, H., Taylor, N., Clayton, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. A chronobiologic abnormality in luteinizing hormone secretion in teenage girls with the polycystic-ovary syndrome. Zumoff, B., Freeman, R., Coupey, S., Saenger, P., Markowitz, M., Kream, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Excessive insulin receptor serine phosphorylation in cultured fibroblasts and in skeletal muscle. A potential mechanism for insulin resistance in the polycystic ovary syndrome. Dunaif, A., Xia, J., Book, C.B., Schenker, E., Tang, Z. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Internal carotid-artery response to 5% carbon dioxide in women with polycystic ovaries. Lakhani, K., Constantinovici, N., Purcell, W.M., Fernando, R., Hardiman, P. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Abnormal luteinizing hormone secretion in polycystic-ovary syndrome. Camargo, C.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. Comparison of ovarian electrocautery and oral contraceptives in the treatment of hyperandrogenism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Gjønnaess, H. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Alterations in mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase and extracellular regulated kinase signaling in theca cells contribute to excessive androgen production in polycystic ovary syndrome. Nelson-Degrave, V.L., Wickenheisser, J.K., Hendricks, K.L., Asano, T., Fujishiro, M., Legro, R.S., Kimball, S.R., Strauss, J.F., McAllister, J.M. Mol. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Corticotropin-releasing hormone induces an exaggerated response of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol in polycystic ovary syndrome. Lanzone, A., Petraglia, F., Fulghesu, A.M., Ciampelli, M., Caruso, A., Mancuso, S. Fertil. Steril. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Are women with polycystic ovary syndrome resistant to activated protein C? Atiomo, W.U., Condon, J., Adekanmi, O., Friend, J., Wilkin, T.J., Prentice, A.G. Fertil. Steril. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Combined somatostatin analog and follicle-stimulating hormone for women with polycystic ovary syndrome resistant to conventional treatment. Lidor, A., Soriano, D., Seidman, D.S., Dor, J., Mashiach, S., Rabinovici, J. Gynecol. Endocrinol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. The insulin-like growth factor system in normal and abnormal human ovarian follicle development. Giudice, L.C. Am. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Upregulation of adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and adipocytes in insulin-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Tan, B.K., Chen, J., Digby, J.E., Keay, S.D., Kennedy, C.R., Randeva, H.S. Diabetologia (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Association of the (TAAAA)n repeat polymorphism in the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) gene with polycystic ovary syndrome and relation to SHBG serum levels. Xita, N., Tsatsoulis, A., Chatzikyriakidou, A., Georgiou, I. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Lack of an association between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene Pro12Ala polymorphism and adiponectin levels in the polycystic ovary syndrome. Orio, F., Palomba, S., Cascella, T., Di Biase, S., Labella, D., Russo, T., Savastano, S., Zullo, F., Colao, A., Vettor, R., Lombardi, G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Follicular fluid insulin-like growth factor binding protein profiles in polycystic ovary syndrome. Cataldo, N.A., Giudice, L.C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Relationship of insulin receptor substrate-1 and -2 genotypes to phenotypic features of polycystic ovary syndrome. Ehrmann, D.A., Tang, X., Yoshiuchi, I., Cox, N.J., Bell, G.I. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Insulin-lowering agents in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome. De Leo, V., la Marca, A., Petraglia, F. Endocr. Rev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. Linkage and association of insulin gene VNTR regulatory polymorphism with polycystic ovary syndrome. Waterworth, D.M., Bennett, S.T., Gharani, N., McCarthy, M.I., Hague, S., Batty, S., Conway, G.S., White, D., Todd, J.A., Franks, S., Williamson, R. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
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