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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Role of endoplasmic reticular calcium in oligosaccharide processing of alpha 1-antitrypsin.

Mobilization of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) suppresses translational initiation and inhibits post-translational processing and secretion of glycoproteins. This study explores the mechanism whereby ionomycin, a Ca2+ ionophore, and thapsigargin, an ER Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor, promote retention of alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT) bearing high mannose, endoglycosidase H (Endo H)-sensitive oligosaccharide side chains within the ER of HepG2 cells. Arrest occurred at the removal of mannose residues such that intermediates with Man7-9GlcNAc2 side chains accumulated with the Man8-9GlcNAc2 structures predominating. Maturation of alpha 1-AT bearing Man5-6GlcNAc2 side chains was unaffected. Inhibition of alpha 1-AT processing by ionomycin occurred independently of translational suppression. Forms of alpha 1-AT identical to those retained with ionomycin or thapsigargin were observed upon treatment with the alpha-1,2-mannosidase inhibitor 1-deoxymannojirimycin whereas castanospermine, an inhibitor of ER alpha-glucosidase I, produced different forms of the glycoprotein. Neither inhibitor impaired transport or secretion of alpha 1-AT. With brefeldin A, which causes redistribution of Golgi enzymes to the ER, alpha 1-AT was retained intracellularly but acquired resistance to Endo H. With ionomycin, thapsigargin, or 1-deoxymannojirimycin-treated cells, however, brefeldin A failed to promote further processing of the glycoprotein. Possible mechanisms for the suppression of alpha 1-AT processing at the alpha-1,2-mannosidase step by Ca(2+)-mobilizing agents are discussed. Excepting tunicamycin, traditional inhibitors of protein processing did not affect amino acid incorporation.[1]


  1. Role of endoplasmic reticular calcium in oligosaccharide processing of alpha 1-antitrypsin. Kuznetsov, G., Brostrom, M.A., Brostrom, C.O. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
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