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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The E5 oncoprotein of human papillomavirus type 16 transforms fibroblasts and effects the downregulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor in keratinocytes.

To determine the function of the E5 open reading frame (ORF) of the human papillomaviruses (HPVs), rodent fibroblast cell lines were transfected with the E5 ORF of HPV type 6 (HPV-6) and HPV-16 expressed from an exogenous promoter. Transfected fibroblasts were transformed to colony formation in soft agar, and the transformation frequency was increased by epidermal growth factor (EGF) but not by platelet-derived growth factor. In a transitory assay, the E5 ORFs from both HPV-6 and HPV-16 were mitogenic in primary human foreskin epithelial cells (keratinocytes) and acted synergistically with EGF. Investigation of keratinocytes expressing HPV-16 E5 showed that the number of endogenous EGF receptors (EGFRs) per cell was increased two- to fivefold. Immunofluorescence microscopy of HPV-16 E5-expressing keratinocytes indicated that there was an apparent delay in the internalization and degradation of EGFRs compared with controls. Kinetic studies with [125I]EGF showed that the ligand underwent normal internalization and degradation in both HPV-16 E5-expressing and control keratinocytes, but in E5-expressing cells, a greater number of receptors recycled back to the cell surface within 1 to 6 h of ligand binding. Finally, ligand-stimulated phosphorylation of the EGFR on tyrosine, an indication of receptor kinase activity, was of greater magnitude in the HPV-16 E5-expressing keratinocytes than in control cells, although the basal level of receptor phosphorylation was similar.[1]


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