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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Pretreatment with low doses of norethindrone potentiates the osteogenic effects of fluoride on human osteosarcoma cells.

We recently reported that picomolar doses of norethindrone (NET), a synthetic analog of 19-nortestosterone, significantly stimulated human TE85 osteosarcoma cell proliferation, differentiation, and activity in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the possibility that NET interacts with another osteogenic agent, i.e., fluoride, to stimulate human TE85 osteosarcoma cell proliferation, differentiation, and activities. Bone cell proliferation was measured by the stimulation in [3H]thymidine incorporation. Differentiation was monitored by the increase in alkaline phosphatase-specific activity. Osteoblastic activity was assessed by the stimulations in collagen synthesis and in osteocalcin secretion (in the presence of 1 nM 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3). When the human TE85 cells were incubated with mitogenic doses of NET and fluoride concurrently, the stimulatory effects of the two agents on these parameters exhibited no significant interaction. The enhancing effect of NET on the osteogenic effect of fluoride was not due to a shift of the fluoride dose response curve. Pretreatment with NET for 24 h followed by a treatment with a mitogenic dose (i.e., 100 microM) of fluoride for an additional 24 h significantly and synergistically potentiated the effects of fluoride on the [3H]thymidine incorporation, alkaline phosphatase-specific activity, collagen synthesis, and osteocalcin secretion, compared with those with the subsequent vehicle (0.05% ethanol) treatments. In contrast, pretreatment with fluoride for 24 h before the addition of NET for 24 h did not produce significant synergistic stimulations in the test parameters. Pretreatment of TE85 cells with the same doses of dihydrotestosterone or progesterone prior to treatment with fluoride under the same conditions did not induce synergistic potentiation of fluoride in [3H]thymidine incorporation, suggesting that the synergistic interaction with fluoride is probably not a common property of anabolic sex steroids. In summary, we found that: (1) the osteogenic effects of fluoride and NET were additive when cells were treated with both agents concurrently; (2) a 24-h pretreatment with picomolar doses of NET potentiated the osteogenic actions of fluoride in human TE85 osteosarcoma cells; and (3) pretreatment with NET produced a subsequent fluoride response that was synergistic. In conclusion, these findings led us to speculate that the osteogenic actions of NET and fluoride act through different mechanisms, and that NET at low doses has a permissive effect on the osteogenic effects of fluoride, and as such NET may be used in concert with fluoride to increase osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and activity.[1]


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