The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Reduction of granulocyte activation during hemodialysis with regional citrate anticoagulation: dissociation of complement activation and neutropenia from neutrophil degranulation.

Neutropenia and degranulation of neutrophils during hemodialysis with cellulosic membranes have been linked to complement activation, whereas in the synthetic polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) membrane, degranulation occurs without notable complement activation. The mechanisms of neutrophil degranulation under these conditions have not yet been elucidated. Ionized calcium is an important prerequisite of granulocyte activation during in vitro blood contact with both types of artificial surfaces. This study compared the effect of normal ionized calcium during heparin anticoagulation with the effect of extracorporeal calcium depletion during regional citrate anticoagulation on activation of blood components. Because ionized calcium is reduced only in the extra-corporeal circuit, citrate anticoagulation in addition helps to differentiate between extracorporeal and systemic activation phenomena. Twelve chronic hemodialysis patients were dialyzed with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, 16 treatments) or cuprophane (CUP, 16 treatments) membranes either during regional citrate anticoagulation or while anticoagulated with heparin. During hemodialysis with CUP, anticoagulation with citrate significantly reduced neutropenia, C3a levels, and lactoferrin release. Elastase concentrations, however, were not reduced by citrate, probably because elastase release occurred not locally in the cuprophane dialyzer, but mostly in the systemic circulation of the patient. PMMA did not elevate C3a levels, and neutropenia was only mild. Both parameters were not influenced by citrate anti-coagulation. However, PMMA profoundly induced elastase and lactoferrin release during heparin anti-coagulation. Depletion of ionized calcium markedly reduced PMMA-mediated neutrophil degranulation in the extracorporeal circuit. The results indicate that ionized calcium is a requirement for neutrophil degranulation during hemodialysis. In PMMA membranes, neutrophil degranulation occurs independent of high complement levels, occurs at least partially inside the dialyzer, and requires the presence of ionized calcium in the extracorporeal circuit. In cuprophane membranes, degranulation was uncoupled from neutropenia and did not correlate with the degree of complement activation. Even in cuprophane dialysis, degranulation of secondary granules was markedly dependent on ionized calcium levels in the extracorporeal circuit.[1]


WikiGenes - Universities