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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Identification of a transthyretin enhancer site that selectively binds the hepatocyte nuclear factor-3 beta isoform.

The upstream proximal region of the transthyretin (TTR) promoter and a distal enhancer are sufficient to drive liver-specific expression of the TTR gene, as demonstrated by experiments in transgenic mice. Previous analyses have characterized the binding of a number of liver-enriched transcription factors of the TTR promoter including hepatocyte nuclear factors one ( HNF-1), HNF-4, and three distinct HNF-3 proteins (alpha, beta, and gamma), which are members of the winged helix (fork head) family. The TTR enhancer was shown to bind members of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/ EBP) family at two distinct sites (TTR-2 and TTR-3), and an oligonucleotide containing the activation protein one (AP-1) binding sequence competed for recognition to a third enhancer site (TTR-1). In this study, we have carried out a detailed analysis of the transcription factors that recognize the TTR enhancer elements (TTR-1, TTR-2, and TTR-3 oligonucleotide sequences). Analysis of the TTR-1 site demonstrates that the putative AP-1 site in the TTR enhancer binds a ubiquitously expressed factor that is distinct from the AP-1 family of proteins. Next we demonstrate, via gel shift analysis, that the TTR-3 site is recognized by the C/ EBP family in liver nuclear extracts. We also show that whereas the TTR-2 enhancer site is capable of binding recombinant C/ EBP proteins, it does not bind C/ EBP proteins from liver nuclear extracts. The TTR-2 site does, however, contain a variant HNF-3 recognition sequence that exclusively binds the HNF-3 beta isoform. Mutation of this HNF-3 beta-specific recognition sequence caused reductions in TTR enhancer activity. We had previously observed a 95% decrease in HNF-3 alpha expression and a 20% reduction in HNF-3 beta expression in acute phase livers, which correlated with a 60% decrease in TTR gene transcription. We propose that the HNF-3 beta-specific binding site in the TTR enhancer may play a role in maintaining TTR gene expression during the acute phase response in spite of the dramatic reduction in HNF-3 alpha protein levels.[1]


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