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Gene Review

Ttr  -  transthyretin

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AA408768, AI787086, D17860, Prealbumin, Transthyretin, ...
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Disease relevance of Ttr


Psychiatry related information on Ttr


High impact information on Ttr


Chemical compound and disease context of Ttr

  • Induction of the expression of retinol-binding protein and transthyretin in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells differentiated to embryoid bodies [12].
  • The vector consists of part of ttr carrying a subtle mutation in its second exon, and a cassette of the neomycin-resistance (neo)- and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk)-encoding genes flanked with a 3-kb duplication of mostly the second intron of ttr [13].

Biological context of Ttr


Anatomical context of Ttr


Associations of Ttr with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Ttr


Regulatory relationships of Ttr


Other interactions of Ttr

  • We demonstrate that adenovirus-mediated increase of HNF-3alpha levels in F9 cells is sufficient to induce activation of endogenous HNF-3beta levels followed by increased TTR and Shh expression [23].
  • During breeding of the TTR-HNF-3beta transgenic mice we noticed that they displayed severe ataxia [27].
  • In the current study, we identify an activating protein 1 (AP-1) site which partially overlaps the HNF-3S sequence in the TTR promoter [1].
  • In this work, we identify a liver-enriched transcription factor, HNF-6, which recognizes the -138 to -126 region of the HNF-3(beta) promoter and binds the original HNF-3 site of the transthyretin promoter (-94 to -106) [28].
  • Mice lacking TTR generated by targeted disruption (Episkopou, V., Maeda, S., Nishiguchi, S., Shimada, K., Gaitanaris, G. A., Gottesman, M. E., and Robertson, E. J. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 2375-2379) had a 50% decrease in total thyroxine (T4) plasma levels but had normal free hormone levels as compared to wild-type mice [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ttr


  1. Decreased expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 alpha during the acute-phase response influences transthyretin gene transcription. Qian, X., Samadani, U., Porcella, A., Costa, R.H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Analysis of amyloid deposition in a transgenic mouse model of homozygous familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. Kohno, K., Palha, J.A., Miyakawa, K., Saraiva, M.J., Ito, S., Mabuchi, T., Blaner, W.S., Iijima, H., Tsukahara, S., Episkopou, V., Gottesman, M.E., Shimada, K., Takahashi, K., Yamamura, K., Maeda, S. Am. J. Pathol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Amyloid and nonfibrillar deposits in mice transgenic for wild-type human transthyretin: a possible model for senile systemic amyloidosis. Teng, M.H., Yin, J.Y., Vidal, R., Ghiso, J., Kumar, A., Rabenou, R., Shah, A., Jacobson, D.R., Tagoe, C., Gallo, G., Buxbaum, J. Lab. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Transthyretin is not necessary for thyroid hormone metabolism in conditions of increased hormone demand. Sousa, J.C., de Escobar, G.M., Oliveira, P., Saraiva, M.J., Palha, J.A. J. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. An association study between the transthyretin (TTR) gene and mental retardation. Li, J., Gao, J.J., Zhang, F.C., Xing, Q.H., Dang, F.L., Gao, X.C., Duan, S.W., Zheng, Z.J., Qian, X.Q., Qin, W., Li, X.W., Han, Y.F., Li, J., Feng, G.Y., St Clair, D., He, L. European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Differential post-translational modifications of transthyretin in Alzheimer's disease: A study of the cerebral spinal fluid. Biroccio, A., Del Boccio, P., Panella, M., Bernardini, S., Di Ilio, C., Gambi, D., Stanzione, P., Sacchetta, P., Bernardi, G., Martorana, A., Federici, G., Stefani, A., Urbani, A. Proteomics (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. The biological and chemical basis for tissue-selective amyloid disease. Sekijima, Y., Wiseman, R.L., Matteson, J., Hammarström, P., Miller, S.R., Sawkar, A.R., Balch, W.E., Kelly, J.W. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Genes for immunoglobulin heavy chain and serum prealbumin protein are linked in mouse. Taylor, B.A., Bailey, D.W., Cherry, M., Riblet, R., Weigert, M. Nature (1975) [Pubmed]
  9. One factor recognizes the liver-specific enhancers in alpha 1-antitrypsin and transthyretin genes. Grayson, D.R., Costa, R.H., Xanthopoulos, K.G., Darnell, J.E. Science (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Genes for the mouse T cell alloantigens Tpre, Tthy, Tind, and Tsu are closely linked near Igh on chromosome 12. Owen, F.L., Riblet, R. J. Exp. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Distinct positive and negative elements control the limited hepatocyte and choroid plexus expression of transthyretin in transgenic mice. Yan, C., Costa, R.H., Darnell, J.E., Chen, J.D., Van Dyke, T.A. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Induction of the expression of retinol-binding protein and transthyretin in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells differentiated to embryoid bodies. Soprano, D.R., Soprano, K.J., Wyatt, M.L., Goodman, D.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. A replacement vector used to introduce subtle mutations into mouse genes. Horie, K., Maeda, S., Nishiguchi, S., Gottesman, M.E., Shimada, K. Gene (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Elevated hepatocyte levels of the Forkhead box A2 (HNF-3beta) transcription factor cause postnatal steatosis and mitochondrial damage. Hughes, D.E., Stolz, D.B., Yu, S., Tan, Y., Reddy, J.K., Watkins, S.C., Diehl, A.M., Costa, R.H. Hepatology (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification of a transthyretin enhancer site that selectively binds the hepatocyte nuclear factor-3 beta isoform. Samadani, U., Qian, X., Costa, R.H. Gene Expr. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. The gene for transcription factor GATA-6 resides on mouse chromosome 18 and is expressed in myocardium and vascular smooth muscle. Narita, N., Heikinheimo, M., Bielinska, M., White, R.A., Wilson, D.B. Genomics (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. A transgenic mouse line developed to express human amyloidogenic transthyretin cDNA in the brain. Ohuchi, K., Matsuda, A., Maeda, S., Shimada, K., Miyakawa, T. Biochem. Int. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Elevated levels of hepatocyte nuclear factor 3beta in mouse hepatocytes influence expression of genes involved in bile acid and glucose homeostasis. Rausa, F.M., Tan, Y., Zhou, H., Yoo, K.W., Stolz, D.B., Watkins, S.C., Franks, R.R., Unterman, T.G., Costa, R.H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression patterns of vHNF1 and HNF1 homeoproteins in early postimplantation embryos suggest distinct and sequential developmental roles. Cereghini, S., Ott, M.O., Power, S., Maury, M. Development (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Thyroid hormone metabolism in a transthyretin-null mouse strain. Palha, J.A., Episkopou, V., Maeda, S., Shimada, K., Gottesman, M.E., Saraiva, M.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Studies on the metabolism of retinol and retinol-binding protein in transthyretin-deficient mice produced by homologous recombination. Wei, S., Episkopou, V., Piantedosi, R., Maeda, S., Shimada, K., Gottesman, M.E., Blaner, W.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Transthyretin is involved in depression-like behaviour and exploratory activity. Sousa, J.C., Grandela, C., Fernández-Ruiz, J., de Miguel, R., de Sousa, L., Magalhães, A.I., Saraiva, M.J., Sousa, N., Palha, J.A. J. Neurochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Adenovirus-mediated increase of HNF-3 levels stimulates expression of transthyretin and sonic hedgehog, which is associated with F9 cell differentiation toward the visceral endoderm lineage. Tan, Y., Costa, R.H., Kovesdi, I., Reichel, R.R. Gene Expr. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Disruption of the transthyretin gene results in mice with depressed levels of plasma retinol and thyroid hormone. Episkopou, V., Maeda, S., Nishiguchi, S., Shimada, K., Gaitanaris, G.A., Gottesman, M.E., Robertson, E.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. The in vivo neuromodulatory effects of the herbal medicine ginkgo biloba. Watanabe, C.M., Wolffram, S., Ader, P., Rimbach, G., Packer, L., Maguire, J.J., Schultz, P.G., Gohil, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. PPAR alpha mediates peroxisome proliferator-induced transcriptional repression of nonperoxisomal gene expression in mouse. Motojima, K., Peters, J.M., Gonzalez, F.J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Atypical mouse cerebellar development is caused by ectopic expression of the forkhead box transcription factor HNF-3beta. Zhou, H., Hughes, D.E., Major, M.L., Yoo, K., Pesold, C., Costa, R.H. Gene Expr. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. The transcriptional activator hepatocyte nuclear factor 6 regulates liver gene expression. Samadani, U., Costa, R.H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Chromosomal localization of the mouse prealbumin gene (Ttr) by in situ hybridization. Qiu, H., Shimada, K., Cheng, Z. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Retinal anatomy and function of the transthyretin null mouse. Bui, B.V., Armitage, J.A., Fletcher, E.L., Richardson, S.J., Schreiber, G., Vingrys, A.J. Exp. Eye Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
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