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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Synaptic connections of calretinin-immunoreactive neurons in the human neocortex.

Previous immunocytochemical studies in the cerebral cortex of various species have shown that the calcium-binding protein calretinin (CR) labels specific subpopulations of nonspiny nonpyramidal cells (interneurons). The present study attempts to characterize morphologically and chemically the microcircuitry of CR-immunoreactive (CR-ir) neurons in the human temporal neocortex. Postembedding immunocytochemistry for CR and GABA and combination immunocytochemistry for CR and nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein (NPNFP) or for CR and the calcium- binding proteins parvalbumin ( PV) and calbindin (CB) showed CR multiterminal endings frequently innervating the distal apical dendrite or the cell body and proximal dendrites of NPNFP-ir or CB-ir pyramidal cells, respectively. Cell bodies of interneurons immunoreactive for CB or PV were innervated only occasionally by CR multiterminal endings, whereas certain GABA neurons were surrounded by them. Furthermore, CR-ir axon terminals formed either symmetrical (the majority) or asymmetrical synapses with a variety of postsynaptic elements. These results indicate that different subpopulations of CR interneurons exist that are specialized for selective innervation of somatic or dendritic regions of certain pyramidal and nonpyramidal neurons.[1]


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