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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The role of calmodulin- binding sites in the regulation of the Drosophila TRPL cation channel expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes by ca2+, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and GTP-binding proteins.

The roles of calmodulin-binding sites in the regulation by Ca2+, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) and GTP- binding regulatory proteins (G-proteins) of the Drosophila melanogaster TRPL (transient-receptor-potential-like) non-specific Ca2+ channel were investigated. Wild-type TRPL protein and two mutant forms, TRPL (W713G) and TRPL (W814G), in which a key tryptophan residue in each of the two putative calmodulin-binding sites (Sites 1 and 2, respectively) was replaced by glycine, were expressed heterologously in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Immunofluorescence studies indicated that the expressed TRPL, TRPL (W713G) and TRPL (W814G) proteins are located at the plasma membrane. TRPL oocytes (oocytes injected with trpl cRNA) and TRPL (W814G) oocytes [oocytes injected with trpl (W814G) cRNA] exhibited substantially greater rates of basal (constitutive) Ca2+ inflow (measured using fluo-3 and the Ca2+ add-back protocol) than mock-injected oocytes (mock oocytes). In TRPL (W713G) oocytes, this difference was abolished. In TRPL and TRPL (W814G) [oocytes injected with trpl (W713G) cRNA], but not in TRPL (W713G) oocytes, basal Ca2+ inflow was inhibited by W13, an inhibitor of calmodulin action. Calmodulin (3 muM intracellular) inhibited basal Ca2+ inflow in TRPL but not in TRPL (W713G) or TRPL (W814G) oocytes. Staurosporin, an inhibitor of protein kinase C ( PKC), inhibited, while PMA (an activator of PKC) stimulated, basal Ca2+ inflow in TRPL oocytes. In oocytes incubated in the presence of PMA (to suppress Ca2+ inflow through endogenous receptor-activated Ca2+ channels), the InsP3- induced stimulation of Ca2+ inflow through TRPL channels was more clearly evident than in oocytes incubated in the absence of PMA. InsP3 caused a significant stimulation of Mn2+ inflow in TRPL but not in mock oocytes. Rates of InsP3- stimulated Ca2+ inflow through the TRPL, TRPL (W713G) and TRPL (W814G) channels were similar. The ability of GTPgammaS to stimulate Ca2+ inflow through TRPL channels was inhibited by 50% in TRPL (W713G) oocytes but was unaffected in TRPL (W814G) oocytes. It is concluded that, in the environment of the Xenopus oocyte, the Drosophila TRPL channel is activated by (a) interaction with Ca2+/calmodulin at calmodulin-binding Site 1; (b) PKC; (c) InsP3 in a process that does not involve Ca2+ and calmodulin; and (d) a trimeric G-protein(s) through both a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent and a Ca2+/calmodulin-independent mechanism.[1]


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