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Gene Review

trpl  -  transient receptor potential-like

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG1694, CG18345, DmTRPL, Dmel\CG18345, TRP-Like, ...
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Disease relevance of trpl


High impact information on trpl

  • We propose that the light-activated current in photoreceptor cells is produced by a combination of TRP homo- and TRP-TRPL heteromultimers [4].
  • We show that TRPgamma is highly enriched in photoreceptor cells and preferentially heteromultimerizes with TRPL in vitro and in vivo [5].
  • To explain the residual photoresponse that remains in the trp mutant, a third TRP-related subunit has previously been proposed to function with TRPL [5].
  • The TIM response to a light pulse was attenuated in flies that were mutant for the transient receptor potential (trp) and trp-like (trpl) genes, which are required for calcium conductance in the visual transduction cascade [6].
  • The trpl protein contains two possible calmodulin-binding sites, six transmembrane regions, and a sequence homologous to an ankyrin-like repeat [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of trpl

  • To test this hypothesis, the effect of thapsigargin, a selective inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump, on trp- and trpl-induced whole cell membrane current was determined using the baculovirus Sf9 insect cell expression system [8].
  • Consistent with this hypothesis, we recently showed that recombinant Trpl forms Ca(2+)- and Ba(2+)-permeable non-selective cation channels when expressed in Sf9 cells using the baculovirus expression vector [9].

Biological context of trpl

  • A previous report indicated that a null trpl mutant does not display any mutant phenotype [10].
  • Rescue of trpl(302) with a trpl transgene under heat-shock control resulted in a stimulated fluid transport phenotype that was indistinguishable from wild-type tubules [11].
  • Western blotting of tubule preparations from trp and trpl mutants revealed a correlation between TRPL levels and CAP(2b)-stimulated fluid transport and calcium signaling [11].
  • Although the identity of the G-proteins and of possible second messengers involved need to be clarified, it is clear that trpl represents a receptor/G-protein regulated cation channel [2].
  • In Drosophila photoreceptors, TRP-like (TRPL) channels are localized to the signaling compartment, the rhabdomere, in the dark, and undergo light-induced translocation into the cell body as a mechanism for long-term light-adaptation [12].

Anatomical context of trpl

  • Here, the properties of trpl photoreceptor responses were studied by using electroretinogram (ERG) and intracellular recording techniques in combination with light stimuli of relatively long durations [10].
  • Likewise, purified recombinant dFKBP59 produced a graded inhibition of TRPL single channel activity in excised inside-out patches when added to the cytoplasmic membrane surface [13].
  • Transient receptor potential-like channels are essential for calcium signaling and fluid transport in a Drosophila epithelium [11].
  • Thapsigargin and receptor-mediated activation of Drosophila TRPL channels stably expressed in a Drosophila S2 cell line [1].
  • The addition of extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]0) to oocytes injected with trpl cRNA and to mock-injected controls, both loaded with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fluo-3, induced a rapid initial and a slower sustained rate of increase in fluorescence, which were designated the initial and sustained rates of Ca2+ inflow respectively [14].

Associations of trpl with chemical compounds

  • For a wide range of cations, ionic permeability ratios in wild type were always intermediate between those of trp and trpl mutants [15].
  • (1997) proposed that Ca(2+) ions entering through the TRP channel modulate TRP and TRPL channel activities differentially [10].
  • In some cells, TRPL channels activated by thapsigargin could further be activated by carbamylcholine [1].
  • We have stably co-expressed Drosophila TRPL with a Drosophila muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (DM1) in a Drosophila cell line (S2 cells) [1].
  • In Drosophila photoreceptors, activation of TRP and TRPL is mediated via the phosphoinositide cascade, with both Ca(2+) and diacylglycerol (DAG) essential for generating the light response [16].

Physical interactions of trpl


Regulatory relationships of trpl

  • In particular, InsP3 infusion, modulation of protein kinase C activity or elevation of intracellular calcium concentration failed to induce trpl currents [18].
  • Two phospholipase C inhibitors (U-73122 4 microM and bromo-phenacyl bromide 50 microM) reduced both spontaneous and agonist-induced TRPL activity in S2 cells [19].
  • The cDNA encoding the Trpl protein was initially isolated on the basis that the expressed protein binds calmodulin [17].
  • The open channel block by Ca(2+) that we characterized is a useful mechanism to improve the signal to noise ratio of the response to intense light when virtually all the large conductance TRPL channels are blocked and only the low conductance TRP channels with lower Ca(2+) affinity are active [20].
  • In oocytes incubated in the presence of PMA (to suppress Ca2+ inflow through endogenous receptor-activated Ca2+ channels), the InsP3-induced stimulation of Ca2+ inflow through TRPL channels was more clearly evident than in oocytes incubated in the absence of PMA [21].

Other interactions of trpl

  • The Drosophila light-activated conductance is composed of the two channels TRP and TRPL [22].
  • Immunoprecipitations from Drosophila S2 cells and from fly head lysates demonstrated that dFKBP59, but not dFKBP12, interacts with TRPL in vivo [13].
  • These results provide strong support for the hypothesis that immunophilin dFKBP59 is part of the TRPL-INAD signaling complex and plays an important role in modulation of channel activity via interaction with conserved leucyl-prolyl dipeptides located near the cytoplasmic mouth of the channel [13].
  • Finally, we show that arrestin2 is required for the rhabdomeric localization and stability of TRPL channels [12].
  • Activation of heterologously expressed Drosophila TRPL channels: Ca2+ is not required and InsP3 is not sufficient [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of trpl


  1. Thapsigargin and receptor-mediated activation of Drosophila TRPL channels stably expressed in a Drosophila S2 cell line. Yagodin, S., Hardie, R.C., Lansdell, S.J., Millar, N.S., Mason, W.T., Sattelle, D.B. Cell Calcium (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. The Drosophila cation channel trpl expressed in insect Sf9 cells is stimulated by agonists of G-protein-coupled receptors. Harteneck, C., Obukhov, A.G., Zobel, A., Kalkbrenner, F., Schultz, G. FEBS Lett. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression of Drosophila Ca2+ permeable transient receptor potential-like channel protein in a prostate cancer cell line decreases cell survival. Zhang, L., Brereton, H.M., Hahn, M., Froscio, M., Tilley, W.D., Brown, M.P., Barritt, G.J. Cancer Gene Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Coassembly of TRP and TRPL produces a distinct store-operated conductance. Xu, X.Z., Li, H.S., Guggino, W.B., Montell, C. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. TRPgamma, a drosophila TRP-related subunit, forms a regulated cation channel with TRPL. Xu, X.Z., Chien, F., Butler, A., Salkoff, L., Montell, C. Neuron (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Response of the timeless protein to light correlates with behavioral entrainment and suggests a nonvisual pathway for circadian photoreception. Yang, Z., Emerson, M., Su, H.S., Sehgal, A. Neuron (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification of a Drosophila gene encoding a calmodulin-binding protein with homology to the trp phototransduction gene. Phillips, A.M., Bull, A., Kelly, L.E. Neuron (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Activation of recombinant trp by thapsigargin in Sf9 insect cells. Vaca, L., Sinkins, W.G., Hu, Y., Kunze, D.L., Schilling, W.P. Am. J. Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Receptor-mediated activation of recombinant Trpl expressed in Sf9 insect cells. Hu, Y., Schilling, W.P. Biochem. J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Phenotypes of trpl mutants and interactions between the transient receptor potential (TRP) and TRP-like channels in Drosophila. Leung, H.T., Geng, C., Pak, W.L. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Transient receptor potential-like channels are essential for calcium signaling and fluid transport in a Drosophila epithelium. MacPherson, M.R., Pollock, V.P., Kean, L., Southall, T.D., Giannakou, M.E., Broderick, K.E., Dow, J.A., Hardie, R.C., Davies, S.A. Genetics (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Two stages of light-dependent TRPL-channel translocation in Drosophila photoreceptors. Cronin, M.A., Lieu, M.H., Tsunoda, S. J. Cell. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Regulation of Drosophila TRPL channels by immunophilin FKBP59. Goel, M., Garcia, R., Estacion, M., Schilling, W.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression of Drosophila trpl cRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes leads to the appearance of a Ca2+ channel activated by Ca2+ and calmodulin, and by guanosine 5'[gamma-thio]triphosphate. Lan, L., Bawden, M.J., Auld, A.M., Barritt, G.J. Biochem. J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. In vivo analysis of the drosophila light-sensitive channels, TRP and TRPL. Reuss, H., Mojet, M.H., Chyb, S., Hardie, R.C. Neuron (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Insights on trp channels from in vivo studies in Drosophila. Minke, B., Parnas, M. Annu. Rev. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification and characterization of two distinct calmodulin-binding sites in the Trpl ion-channel protein of Drosophila melanogaster. Warr, C.G., Kelly, L.E. Biochem. J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Direct activation of trpl cation channels by G alpha11 subunits. Obukhov, A.G., Harteneck, C., Zobel, A., Harhammer, R., Kalkbrenner, F., Leopoldt, D., Lückhoff, A., Nürnberg, B., Schultz, G. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Activation of heterologously expressed Drosophila TRPL channels: Ca2+ is not required and InsP3 is not sufficient. Hardie, R.C., Raghu, P. Cell Calcium (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Open Channel Block by Ca2+ Underlies the Voltage Dependence of Drosophila TRPL Channel. Parnas, M., Katz, B., Minke, B. J. Gen. Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  21. The role of calmodulin-binding sites in the regulation of the Drosophila TRPL cation channel expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes by ca2+, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and GTP-binding proteins. Lan, L., Brereton, H., Barritt, G.J. Biochem. J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. The Drosophila light-activated conductance is composed of the two channels TRP and TRPL. Niemeyer, B.A., Suzuki, E., Scott, K., Jalink, K., Zuker, C.S. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
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