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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Colony-stimulating factors signal for increased transport of vitamin C in human host defense cells.

Although serum concentrations of ascorbic acid seldom exceed 150 micromol/L, mature neutrophils and mononuclear phagocytes accumulate millimolar concentrations of vitamin C. Relatively little is known about the mechanisms regulating this process. The colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), which are central modulators of the production, maturation, and function of human granulocytes and mononuclear phagocytes, are known to stimulate increased glucose uptake in target cells. We show here that vitamin C uptake in neutrophils, monocytes, and a neutrophilic HL-60 cell line is enhanced by the CSFs. Hexose uptake studies and competition analyses showed that dehydroascorbic acid is taken up by these cells through facilitative glucose transporters. Human monocytes were found to have a greater capacity to take up dehydroascorbic acid than neutrophils, related to more facilitative glucose transporters on the monocyte cell membrane. Ascorbic acid was not transported by these myeloid cells, indicating that they do not express a sodium-ascorbate cotransporter. Granulocyte (G)- and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) stimulated increased uptake of vitamin C in human neutrophils, monocytes, and HL-60 neutrophils. In HL-60 neutrophils, GM-CSF increased both the transport of dehydroascorbic acid and the intracellular accumulation of ascorbic acid. The increase in transport was related to a decrease in Km for transport of dehydroascorbic acid without a change in Vmax. Increased ascorbic acid accumulation was a secondary effect of increased transport. Triggering the neutrophils with the peptide fMetLeuPhe led to enhanced vitamin C uptake by increasing the oxidation of ascorbic acid to the transportable moiety dehydroascorbic acid, and this effect was increased by priming the cells with GM-CSF. Thus, the CSFs act at least at two distinct functional loci to increase cellular vitamin C uptake: conversion of ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid by enhanced oxidation in the pericellular milieu and increased transport of DHA through the facilitative glucose transporters at the cell membrane. These results link the regulated uptake of vitamin C in human host defense cells to the action of CSFs.[1]


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