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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Growth regulation of primary human keratinocytes by prostaglandin E receptor EP2 and EP3 subtypes.

We examined the contribution of specific EP receptors in regulating cell growth. By RT-PCR and northern hybridization, adult human keratinocytes express mRNA for three PGE2 receptor subtypes associated with cAMP signaling ( EP2, EP3, and small amounts of EP4). In actively growing, non-confluent primary keratinocyte cultures, the EP2 and EP4 selective agonists, 11-deoxy PGE1 and 1-OH PGE1, caused complete reversal of indomethacin-induced growth inhibition. The EP3/ EP2 agonist (misoprostol), and the EP1/ EP2 agonist (17-phenyl trinor PGE2), showed less activity. Similar results were obtained with agonist-induced cAMP formation. The ability of exogenous dibutyryl cAMP to completely reverse indomethacin-induced growth inhibition support the conclusion that growth stimulation occurs via an EP2 and/or EP4 receptor-adenylyl cyclase coupled response. In contrast, activation of EP3 receptors by sulprostone, which is virtually devoid of agonist activity at EP2 or EP4 receptors, inhibited bromodeoxyuridine uptake in indomethacin-treated cells up to 30%. Although human EP3 receptor variants have been shown in other cell types to markedly inhibit cAMP formation via a pertussis toxin sensitive mechanisms, EP3 receptor activation and presumably growth inhibition was independent of adenylyl cyclase, suggesting activation of other signaling pathways.[1]


  1. Growth regulation of primary human keratinocytes by prostaglandin E receptor EP2 and EP3 subtypes. Konger, R.L., Malaviya, R., Pentland, A.P. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1998) [Pubmed]
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