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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Alternative macrophage activation-associated CC-chemokine-1, a novel structural homologue of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha with a Th2-associated expression pattern.

We have cloned a novel human CC-chemokine, alternative macrophage activation-associated CC-chemokine (AMAC)-1. The isolated cDNA clone (803 bp) shows a single open reading frame of 267-bp coding for 89 amino acid residues; mature AMAC-1 protein is predicted to consist of 69 amino acids with a m.w. of 7855. Sequence alignment and 3D-modeling show the typical structural characteristics of CC-chemokines with special features in the receptor-activating domain. AMAC-1 is most closely related to MIP-1 alpha with a cDNA and protein sequence homology of 55% and 59%, respectively. However, the expression pattern of AMAC-1 is directly opposite to that of MIP-1 alpha. While MIP-1 alpha is induced by classical macrophage mediators such as LPS and is inhibited by IL-4 and glucocorticoids, AMAC-1 is specifically induced in macrophages by alternative macrophage mediators such as IL-4, IL-13, and IL-10. Expression of AMAC-1 is inhibited by IFN-gamma while glucocorticoids exert a slightly positive synergistic effect in combination with IL-4. Peripheral blood monocytes do not express AMAC-1; time course experiments show that monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation is a prerequisite for AMAC-1 expression. Expression of AMAC-1 by granulocyte-macrophage CSF/ IL-4-induced, monocyte-derived dendritic cells is complex; in mature adherent dendritic cells, however, only minor AMAC-1 mRNA expression was found. In vivo, AMAC-1 is expressed by alveolar macrophages from healthy persons, smokers, and asthmatic patients. In conclusion, AMAC-1 is a novel CC-chemokine whose expression is induced in alternatively activated macrophages by Th2-associated cytokines; thus, AMAC-1 may be involved in the APC-dependent T cell development in inflammatory and immune reactions.[1]


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