The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

MMD  -  monocyte to macrophage differentiation...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: MMA, MMD1, Monocyte to macrophage differentiation factor, PAQR11, Progestin and adipoQ receptor family member 11, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of MMD

  • However, inhalable dust particles, in the range of 20 microm (MMD), undergo hydration/dehydration rapidly owing to their high surface-to-volume ratio [1].
  • This procedure may be an effective and safe surgical modality for the prevention of ischemia in the whole territory of the anterior circulation of the brain in pediatric MMD [2].
  • 5. In contrast, among the 28 patients with acute myocardial infarction, the ratio of MMA to MMC in the first available plasma sample averaged 14.6 +/- 4.5 (p less than .01 compared with both control groups) [3].
  • MMA was first dominant (A:B:C = 54:34:12%) in the early stage (6-9 h after the onset of chest pain) followed by MMB dominant (19:42:39%) in the middle stage (24-35 h), and MMC dominant (6:22:72%) in the late stage (54-60 h) [4].
  • Leu-M1, or MMA, originally was proposed as a differentiation antigen on myelomonocytic cells and was said to be useful as an aid in distinguishing lymphoid from myeloid leukemias [5].

Psychiatry related information on MMD

  • We found that some significant abnormalities were common to both groups of patients; these included slow reaction times, a reduced amplitude of the N170 wave (and the corresponding 157-210 ms epoch in the MMA analysis) and a broad late negative shift between 577 and 735 ms [6].
  • To summarize, the neuropsychologic findings in MSUD and MMA children in both groups demonstrated deficits in cognitive/language areas, but interesting individual differences existed [7].

High impact information on MMD


Chemical compound and disease context of MMD

  • True nonketotic hyperglycinemia is not associated with ketoacidosis even after loading with propionate- and MMA precursors [11].
  • It was found that MMA excretion per mg creatinine in random urine specimens correlated significantly with serum MMA and twenty four-hour output of MMA per kg body weight [12].
  • Co deficiency was found in about half of the cases and the investigation was complemented by determining the vitamin B12 level, which proved nutritional Co/vitamin B12 deficiency, further verified by an increased MMA (methylmalonic acid) level in plasma [13].
  • Finally, the measurement of serum levels of MMA, HCYS and other metabolites that accumulate in Cbl and folate deficiencies may provide important new insights into the mechanism whereby these vitamin deficiencies lead to different patterns and manifestations of disease [14].

Biological context of MMD

  • The 2-min tidal breathing results were compared to five inhalations from a VHC device in patients using the Pari-provoII nebulizer (MMD = 2.1mkm) [15].
  • Differences between MMA and PA may indicate different distribution of propionate pools, differences in inducibility of residual enzyme activities, or an alternate pathway for decarboxylation of propionate available in MMA but not PA [16].
  • Multi-motor unit action potential analysis (MMA) [17].
  • Enzymatic methylation of arsenic compounds. VII. Monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) is the substrate for MMA methyltransferase of rabbit liver and human hepatocytes [18].
  • We identified a total of 21 affected pregnancies (18%): cblA, 2/8; cblB, 0/5; cblC, 10/52; cblE, 2/3; cblF, 0/5; cblG, 0/5; transcobalamin deficiency, 0/2; methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (mut) deficiency, 7/30; and unclassified MMA, 0/7 [19].

Anatomical context of MMD

  • In conclusion, there is great mimicry in the MMD involvement in the dermis during low-grade GVHR and after chronic applications of imiquimod [20].
  • In patient 1, 86% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (predominantly blasts) reacted with a monoclonal antibody specific for granulocytes and monocytes (MMA), and 15% of mononuclear cells reacted with Tab, a monoclonal antibody specific for megakaryocyte-platelet glycoproteins (PGP) IIb and IIIa [21].
  • The lines had elevated levels of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase enzyme and expressed surface antigens found on normal myeloid-macrophage cells (MMA) and on natural killer cells (HNK-1) [22].
  • In conclusion, in vivo monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation is associated with increased cell capacity to oxidize LDL, which may represent a protective mechanism for rapid removal of atherogenic LDL from extracellular spaces in the arterial wall [23].
  • We report that primary HCMV infection of monocytes induces transendothelial migration and monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and that these HCMV-differentiated macrophages are productive for viral replication [24].

Associations of MMD with chemical compounds

  • RESULTS: Three crystalline mannitol powders with primary particle size (MMD) 2.7, 5.0, 7.3 microm and a similar polydispersity were obtained [25].
  • The absence of TTX-resistant AP in ACh-sensitive fibers and its lack of correlation with the histochemical criteria of denervation suggest the presence of a state of innervation in MMD, where the motoneuron is not able to maintain its fully trophic influence on the muscle fiber membrane [26].
  • AIMS: To explore the effects in normal and asthmatic adults of exposure to 200 ppb sulphur dioxide (SO2) and 200 microg/m3 and 2000 microg/m3 aerosols of ammonium bisulphate (AB) and sulphuric acid (SA) (MMD 0.3 microm) [27].
  • With MMA, k(reinit) decreases substantially as the steric bulk of the hydride increases; with styrene, the steric bulk of the hydride has little effect [28].
  • For the high spatial resolution maps of selected regions within the core we used the VLA for CCS at 22 GHz, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) MMA for CCS at 94 GHz and CS (2-1) [29].

Regulatory relationships of MMD


Other interactions of MMD

  • The neural network methodology, with monitoring of myoglobin, CK-MB and tn-T allowed, within the first three hours, reliable diagnosis/exclusion of AMI/MMD and prediction of infarct size in patients admitted with suspicion of AMI [31].
  • Peripheral blood monocytes do not express AMAC-1; time course experiments show that monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation is a prerequisite for AMAC-1 expression [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MMD

  • Two commercially available nebulizer systems were used, namely, a Turret nebulizer operated at a compressed gas flow rate of 12 L/min (droplet MMD, 3.3 mu) and an Inspiron nebulizer driven at 6 L/min (MMD, 7.7 mu) [33].
  • The aim of the present study was to compare them using immunohistochemistry to identify MMD subsets and other inflammatory cells in the dermis [20].
  • Greater understanding of the determinants of the prevalence of MMA will help national policy makers determine the appropriate age for measles vaccination [34].
  • The extracted species were analysed by gas chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC/ICPMS; DBT, TBT and MeHg) and liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC/ICPMS; MMA, DMA, AsB) after ethylation with sodium tetraethylborate or dilution with water, respectively [35].
  • Mass spectrometry and Western blot analyses indicated that this 45-kDa MMA-positive protein was an inhibitor of NF-kappaB, IkappaBgamma [36].


  1. Measurement of borate in occupational environments. Smith, R.A., Ascherl, F.M. Biological trace element research. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis with bifrontal encephalogaleo(periosteal)synangiosis in the pediatric moyamoya disease: the surgical technique and its outcomes. Kim, C.Y., Wang, K.C., Kim, S.K., Chung, Y.N., Kim, H.S., Cho, B.K. Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Diagnostic changes in plasma creatine kinase isoforms early after the onset of acute myocardial infarction. Jaffe, A.S., Serota, H., Grace, A., Sobel, B.E. Circulation (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Time dependent conversion of creatine kinase MM isoforms in man. Kojima, T., Hashimoto, H., Tsukamoto, H., Ito, T., Ogawa, K., Satake, T. Cardiovasc. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. The spectrum of Leu-M1 staining in lymphoid and hematopoietic proliferations. Swerdlow, S.H., Wright, S.A. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Working memory in temporal lobe epilepsy: an event-related potential study. Grippo, A., Pelosi, L., Mehta, V., Blumhardt, L.D. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Metabolic correlates of learning disability. Nyhan, W.L., Wulfeck, B.B., Tallal, P., Marsden, D.L. Birth Defects Orig. Artic. Ser. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Palladium-catalyzed Reppe carbonylation. Kiss, G. Chem. Rev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Selective up-regulation of PDE1B2 upon monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation. Bender, A.T., Ostenson, C.L., Wang, E.H., Beavo, J.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Cell-specific expression of the macrophage scavenger receptor gene is dependent on PU.1 and a composite AP-1/ets motif. Moulton, K.S., Semple, K., Wu, H., Glass, C.K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Acute neonatal nonketotic hyperglycinemia: normal propionate and methylmalonate metabolism. Baumgartner, E.R., Bachmann, C., Brechbühler, T., Wick, H. Pediatr. Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  12. Dietary therapy in two patients with vitamin B12-unresponsive methylmalonic acidemia. Satoh, T., Narisawa, K., Igarashi, Y., Saitoh, T., Hayasaka, K., Ichinohazama, Y., Onodera, H., Tada, K., Oohara, K. Eur. J. Pediatr. (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Nova Scotia moose mystery--a moose sickness related to cobalt- and vitamin B12 deficiency. Frank, A., McPartlin, J., Danielsson, R. Sci. Total Environ. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Metabolite assays in cobalamin and folate deficiency. Green, R. Baillieres Clin. Haematol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. A simple method of bronchoprovocation using a valved holding chamber. Taivans, I., Jurka, N., Strazda, G., Brezinskis, G. Journal of aerosol medicine : the official journal of the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Metabolism of 1-13C-propionate in vivo in patients with disorders of propionate metabolism. Barshop, B.A., Yoshida, I., Ajami, A., Sweetman, L., Wolff, J.A., Sweetman, F.R., Prodanos, C., Smith, M., Nyhan, W.L. Pediatr. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Multi-motor unit action potential analysis (MMA). Spitzer, A.R. Muscle Nerve (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Enzymatic methylation of arsenic compounds. VII. Monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) is the substrate for MMA methyltransferase of rabbit liver and human hepatocytes. Zakharyan, R.A., Ayala-Fierro, F., Cullen, W.R., Carter, D.M., Aposhian, H.V. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Prenatal diagnosis for methylmalonic acidemia and inborn errors of vitamin B12 metabolism and transport. Morel, C.F., Watkins, D., Scott, P., Rinaldo, P., Rosenblatt, D.S. Mol. Genet. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Prolonged imiquimod treatment and graft-versus-host reaction: histological mimicry in the skin infiltration pattern of the monocyte-macrophage-dendrocyte lineage. Hermanns-Lê, T., Paquet, P., Nikkels, A.F., Piérard-Franchimont, C., Piérard, G.E. Dermatology (Basel) (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Blastic transformation of essential thrombocythemia: dual expression of myelomonoblastic/megakaryoblastic phenotypes. Frei-Lahr, D., Barton, J.C., Hoffman, R., Burkett, L.L., Prchal, J.T. Blood (1984) [Pubmed]
  22. Two new acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines with early B-cell phenotypes. Findley, H.W., Cooper, M.D., Kim, T.H., Alvarado, C., Ragab, A.H. Blood (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. Cell-induced copper ion-mediated low density lipoprotein oxidation increases during in vivo monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation. Fuhrman, B., Shiner, M., Volkova, N., Aviram, M. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Human cytomegalovirus induces monocyte differentiation and migration as a strategy for dissemination and persistence. Smith, M.S., Bentz, G.L., Alexander, J.S., Yurochko, A.D. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Influence of particle size, air flow, and inhaler device on the dispersion of mannitol powders as aerosols. Chew, N.Y., Chan, H.K. Pharm. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Electrophysiologic denervation changes of human muscle fibers in motoneuron diseases. Uchitel, O.D., Dubrovsky, A.L. Muscle Nerve (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. The effect of sulphurous air pollutant exposures on symptoms, lung function, exhaled nitric oxide, and nasal epithelial lining fluid antioxidant concentrations in normal and asthmatic adults. Tunnicliffe, W.S., Harrison, R.M., Kelly, F.J., Dunster, C., Ayres, J.G. Occupational and environmental medicine. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Kinetics and thermodynamics of H. transfer from (eta5-C5R5)Cr(CO)3H (R = Ph, Me, H) to methyl methacrylate and styrene. Tang, L., Papish, E.T., Abramo, G.P., Norton, J.R., Baik, M.H., Friesner, R.A., Rappé, A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Evolutionary status of the pre-protostellar core L1498. Kuiper, T.B., Langer, W.D., Velusamy, T. Astrophys. J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Combinatorial interactions between AP-1 and ets domain proteins contribute to the developmental regulation of the macrophage scavenger receptor gene. Wu, H., Moulton, K., Horvai, A., Parik, S., Glass, C.K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Biochemical markers of myocardial damage for early diagnosis and prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Minireview based on a doctorial thesis. Lindahl, B. Ups. J. Med. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Alternative macrophage activation-associated CC-chemokine-1, a novel structural homologue of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha with a Th2-associated expression pattern. Kodelja, V., Müller, C., Politz, O., Hakij, N., Orfanos, C.E., Goerdt, S. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Delivery of albuterol and ipratropium bromide from two nebulizer systems in chronic stable asthma. Efficacy and pulmonary deposition. Johnson, M.A., Newman, S.P., Bloom, R., Talaee, N., Clarke, S.W. Chest (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. Factors determining prevalence of maternal antibody to measles virus throughout infancy: a review. Cáceres, V.M., Strebel, P.M., Sutter, R.W. Clin. Infect. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
  35. Simultaneous co-extraction of organometallic species of different elements by accelerated solvent extraction and analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry coupled to liquid and gas chromatography. Wahlen, R., Catterick, T. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. NF-kappaB precursor, p105, and NF-kappaB inhibitor, IkappaBgamma, are both elevated in Alzheimer disease brain. Huang, Y., Liu, F., Grundke-Iqbal, I., Iqbal, K., Gong, C.X. Neurosci. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities