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Gene Review

IL13  -  interleukin 13

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ALRH, BHR1, IL-13, Interleukin-13, MGC116786, ...
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Disease relevance of IL13


Psychiatry related information on IL13

  • Arg110Gln has been suggested to lead to enhanced IL-13 signaling and thus may be involved in shifting the immune reaction towards the hyper-reactivity characteristic for the sowda form, thereby promoting defense mechanisms [6].
  • Working memory deficits in multiple sclerosis: a controlled study with auditory P600 correlates [7].
  • These findings may indicate that auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia are associated with impaired synchronization of the processes related to target detection, as reflected by the P600 [8].
  • Additionally, the P600 might serve as a valuable investigative tool for a more comprehensive understanding of the neurobiological substrate of drug abuse [9].
  • Abnormal P600 in obsessive-compulsive disorder. A comparison with healthy controls [10].
  • An IL13 polymorphism in the promoter region may modulate the adverse effects of cigarette smoking on pulmonary function in long-term cigarette smokers [11].

High impact information on IL13


Chemical compound and disease context of IL13


Biological context of IL13


Anatomical context of IL13

  • In the search for genes involved in type 1 diabetes (T1D), other than the well-established risk alleles at the human leukocyte antigen loci, we have investigated the association and interaction of polymorphisms in genes involved in the IL4/IL13 pathway in a sample of 90 Filipino patients with T1D and 94 controls [18].
  • Interestingly, IL13-1112T had opposite transcriptional effects in nonpolarized CD4(+) T cells, paralleled by distinct patterns of DNA-protein interactions at the IL13 promoter [22].
  • Recently, we have demonstrated that human (h) glioma cell lines express large number of receptors (R) for interleukin 13 (IL13) (Debinski, W., Obiri, N. I., Powers, S. K., Pastan, I., and Puri, R. K. (1995) Clin. Cancer Res. 1, 1253-1258) [23].
  • Using in vivo, in vitro, and in silico analysis, we show that the IL13-1112T allele enhanced IL13 promoter activity in primary human and murine CD4(+) Th2 lymphocytes [22].
  • For increased plasma total IgE concentration, the best 2-locus model consisted of R130Q in IL13 and C-431T in the thymus and activation-regulated chemokine gene (TARC) [24].

Associations of IL13 with chemical compounds

  • RESULTS: The latex allergy phenotype was significantly associated with promoter polymorphisms in IL13 -1055 (P = 0.02), IL18 -607 (P = 0.02), and IL18 -656 (P = 0.02) compared with nonatopic controls [25].
  • DNA was extracted from blood collected in EDTA tubes, and polymorphisms at positions 50 and 551 of the IL4 receptor, position 110 of IL13 and position 181 of the high-affinity IgE receptor were investigated by sequence-specific PCR or direct sequencing [26].
  • Recombinant IL-13 protein inhibits inflammatory cytokine production induced by lipopolysaccharide in human peripheral blood monocytes [27].
  • PGE2 was more efficacious than beta-agonist in activating PKA and inhibiting cytokine production. beta-agonist and PGE2 also inhibited phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) + calcimycin-stimulated IFN-gamma and IL-2 (but not IL-13) production, suggesting that upstream CD3-initiated signaling is not the sole locus of PKA actions [28].
  • IL-4 and IL-13 enhanced A23187-stimulated LTB(4) synthesis and increased mRNA expression and protein synthesis of LTA(4) hydrolase, but not those of cPLA(2) or 5-LO [29].
  • We observed a significant association between responsiveness to montelukast and IL-13 -1112C/T polymorphism and the haplotype of IL-13 polymorphisms [30].

Physical interactions of IL13

  • IL-13 Induced the same complexes as IL-4, a finding explained by our studies implicating IL-4R as a shared component of the receptors [31].
  • We have cloned a cDNA encoding an IL-13 binding protein (IL-13R) from the Caki-1 human renal carcinoma cell line [32].
  • Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 6 by IL-13 was confirmed by nuclear protein binding to a DNA probe derived from the eotaxin promoter [33].
  • All sections of non-malignant brain tissues examined showed avid binding by the TfR with lack of consistent and specific binding of 125I-IL13 or -EGF [5].
  • Co-expression of the cloned cDNA with that of IL-4R alpha resulted in a receptor complex that displayed high affinity for IL-13 (Kd approximately 30 pM), and that allowed cross-competition of IL-13 and IL-4 [34].

Enzymatic interactions of IL13


Regulatory relationships of IL13


Other interactions of IL13

  • The above results demonstrate that IL-4 and IL-13 share a receptor component that is important for signal transduction [45].
  • A significant gene-gene interaction between S478P in IL4RA and the -1111 promoter variation in IL13, previously shown to be associated with BHR (P=.003), was detected [19].
  • Thus, IL-13 elicits a spectrum of responses in vascular endothelium remarkably similar to that of IL-4 and IL-10 [43].
  • IL-13 efficiently caused activation of STAT6 protein in cells transfected with the IL-13Ralpha1 and IL-4Ralpha chains, and IL-13Ralpha2 inhibited this activation [40].
  • In the process of screening T-cell lines for T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokine mRNAs, we observed that interleukin-13 (IL-13) mRNA was highly expressed in HTLV-1-infected, IL-2-dependent T-cell lines [46].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IL13


  1. Novel anti-brain tumor cytotoxins specific for cancer cells. Debinski, W., Gibo, D.M., Obiri, N.I., Kealiher, A., Puri, R.K. Nat. Biotechnol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. A novel chimeric protein composed of interleukin 13 and Pseudomonas exotoxin is highly cytotoxic to human carcinoma cells expressing receptors for interleukin 13 and interleukin 4. Debinski, W., Obiri, N.I., Pastan, I., Puri, R.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Association between severe respiratory syncytial virus infection and IL13/IL4 haplotypes. Puthothu, B., Krueger, M., Forster, J., Heinzmann, A. J. Infect. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Th2 cytokine genotypes are associated with a milder form of primary Sjogren's syndrome. Pertovaara, M., Antonen, J., Hurme, M. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Receptor for interleukin 13 is abundantly and specifically over-expressed in patients with glioblastoma multiforme. Debinski, W., Gibo, D.M., Slagle, B., Powers, S.K., Gillespie, G.Y. Int. J. Oncol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. The variant Arg110Gln of human IL-13 is associated with an immunologically hyper-reactive form of onchocerciasis (sowda). Hoerauf, A., Kruse, S., Brattig, N.W., Heinzmann, A., Mueller-Myhsok, B., Deichmann, K.A. Microbes Infect. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Working memory deficits in multiple sclerosis: a controlled study with auditory P600 correlates. Sfagos, C., Papageorgiou, C.C., Kosma, K.K., Kodopadelis, E., Uzunoglu, N.K., Vassilopoulos, D., Rabavilas, A.D. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Do atypical antipsychotics fail to exert cognitive sparing effects? Papageorgiou, C., Oulis, P., Vasios, C., Matsopoulos, G.K., Uzunoglu, N., Rabavilas, A., Christodoulou, G.N. Neuroreport (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Abnormal P600 in heroin addicts with prolonged abstinence elicited during a working memory test. Papageorgiou, C., Liappas, I., Asvestas, P., Vasios, C., Matsopoulos, G.K., Nikolaou, C., Nikita, K.S., Uzunoglu, N., Rabavilas, A. Neuroreport (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Abnormal P600 in obsessive-compulsive disorder. A comparison with healthy controls. Papageorgiou, C.C., Rabavilas, A.D. Psychiatry research. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. IL13 promoter polymorphism 1112C/T modulates the adverse effect of tobacco smoking on lung function. Sadeghnejad, A., Meyers, D.A., Bottai, M., Sterling, D.A., Bleecker, E.R., Ohar, J.A. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. Asthma: mechanisms of disease persistence and progression. Cohn, L., Elias, J.A., Chupp, G.L. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. IL-13 effector functions. Wynn, T.A. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Direct effects of interleukin-13 on epithelial cells cause airway hyperreactivity and mucus overproduction in asthma. Kuperman, D.A., Huang, X., Koth, L.L., Chang, G.H., Dolganov, G.M., Zhu, Z., Elias, J.A., Sheppard, D., Erle, D.J. Nat. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Induction of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta5-delta4 isomerase type 1 gene transcription in human breast cancer cell lines and in normal mammary epithelial cells by interleukin-4 and interleukin-13. Gingras, S., Moriggl, R., Groner, B., Simard, J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Growth inhibition signalled through the interleukin-4/interleukin-13 receptor complex is associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1. Schnyder, B., Lahm, H., Woerly, G., Odartchenko, N., Ryffel, B., Car, B.D. Biochem. J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 inhibit estrogen-induced breast cancer cell proliferation and stimulate GCDFP-15 expression in human breast cancer cells. Blais, Y., Gingras, S., Haagensen, D.E., Labrie, F., Simard, J. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Association and interaction of the IL4R, IL4, and IL13 loci with type 1 diabetes among Filipinos. Bugawan, T.L., Mirel, D.B., Valdes, A.M., Panelo, A., Pozzilli, P., Erlich, H.A. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Gene-gene interaction in asthma: IL4RA and IL13 in a Dutch population with asthma. Howard, T.D., Koppelman, G.H., Xu, J., Zheng, S.L., Postma, D.S., Meyers, D.A., Bleecker, E.R. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Mutants of interleukin 13 with altered reactivity toward interleukin 13 receptors. Thompson, J.P., Debinski, W. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Characterization of a palindromic enhancer element in the promoters of IL4, IL5, and IL13 cytokine genes. Codlin, S., Soh, C., Lee, T., Lavender, P. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Th2 Cell-Selective Enhancement of Human IL13 Transcription by IL13-1112C>T, a Polymorphism Associated with Allergic Inflammation. Cameron, L., Webster, R.B., Strempel, J.M., Kiesler, P., Kabesch, M., Ramachandran, H., Yu, L., Stern, D.A., Graves, P.E., Lohman, I.C., Wright, A.L., Halonen, M., Klimecki, W.T., Vercelli, D. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Receptor for interleukin (IL) 13 does not interact with IL4 but receptor for IL4 interacts with IL13 on human glioma cells. Debinski, W., Miner, R., Leland, P., Obiri, N.I., Puri, R.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Gene-gene interactions for asthma and plasma total IgE concentration in Chinese children. Chan, I.H., Leung, T.F., Tang, N.L., Li, C.Y., Sung, Y.M., Wong, G.W., Wong, C.K., Lam, C.W. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Genetic predisposition to latex allergy: role of interleukin 13 and interleukin 18. Brown, R.H., Hamilton, R.G., Mintz, M., Jedlicka, A.E., Scott, A.L., Kleeberger, S.R. Anesthesiology (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Type I IgE receptor, interleukin 4 receptor and interleukin 13 polymorphisms in children with nephrotic syndrome. Tenbrock, K., Schubert, A., Stapenhorst, L., Kemper, M.J., Gellermann, J., Timmermann, K., Müller-Wiefel, D.E., Querfeld, U., Hoppe, B., Michalk, D. Clin. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Interleukin-13 is a new human lymphokine regulating inflammatory and immune responses. Minty, A., Chalon, P., Derocq, J.M., Dumont, X., Guillemot, J.C., Kaghad, M., Labit, C., Leplatois, P., Liauzun, P., Miloux, B. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Beta-agonists modulate T-cell functions via direct actions on type 1 and type 2 cells. Loza, M.J., Foster, S., Peters, S.P., Penn, R.B. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. New induction of leukotriene A(4) hydrolase by interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Zaitsu, M., Hamasaki, Y., Matsuo, M., Kukita, A., Tsuji, K., Miyazaki, M., Hayasaki, R., Muro, E., Yamamoto, S., Kobayashi, I., Ichimaru, T., Kohashi, O., Miyazaki, S. Blood (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Association of IL-13 polymorphisms with leukotriene receptor antagonist drug responsiveness in Korean children with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Kang, M.J., Lee, S.Y., Kim, H.B., Yu, J., Kim, B.J., Choi, W.A., Jang, S.O., Hong, S.J. Pharmacogenet. Genomics (2008) [Pubmed]
  31. The role of shared receptor motifs and common Stat proteins in the generation of cytokine pleiotropy and redundancy by IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-13, and IL-15. Lin, J.X., Migone, T.S., Tsang, M., Friedmann, M., Weatherbee, J.A., Zhou, L., Yamauchi, A., Bloom, E.T., Mietz, J., John, S. Immunity (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Cloning and characterization of a specific interleukin (IL)-13 binding protein structurally related to the IL-5 receptor alpha chain. Caput, D., Laurent, P., Kaghad, M., Lelias, J.M., Lefort, S., Vita, N., Ferrara, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Interleukin-13 upregulates eotaxin expression in airway epithelial cells by a STAT6-dependent mechanism. Matsukura, S., Stellato, C., Georas, S.N., Casolaro, V., Plitt, J.R., Miura, K., Kurosawa, S., Schindler, U., Schleimer, R.P. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Cloning of the human IL-13R alpha1 chain and reconstitution with the IL4R alpha of a functional IL-4/IL-13 receptor complex. Miloux, B., Laurent, P., Bonnin, O., Lupker, J., Caput, D., Vita, N., Ferrara, P. FEBS Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. IL-13 induces phosphorylation and activation of JAK2 Janus kinase in human colon carcinoma cell lines: similarities between IL-4 and IL-13 signaling. Murata, T., Noguchi, P.D., Puri, R.K. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Interleukin-13 selectively induces monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 synthesis and secretion by human endothelial cells. Involvement of IL-4R alpha and Stat6 phosphorylation. Goebeler, M., Schnarr, B., Toksoy, A., Kunz, M., Bröcker, E.B., Duschl, A., Gillitzer, R. Immunology (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 is frequently activated in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin lymphoma. Skinnider, B.F., Elia, A.J., Gascoyne, R.D., Patterson, B., Trumper, L., Kapp, U., Mak, T.W. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Human ovarian-carcinoma cell lines express IL-4 and IL-13 receptors: comparison between IL-4- and IL-13-induced signal transduction. Murata, T., Obiri, N.I., Puri, R.K. Int. J. Cancer (1997) [Pubmed]
  39. Interleukin 13 induces interleukin 4-independent IgG4 and IgE synthesis and CD23 expression by human B cells. Punnonen, J., Aversa, G., Cocks, B.G., McKenzie, A.N., Menon, S., Zurawski, G., de Waal Malefyt, R., de Vries, J.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  40. The interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 chain: an essential component for binding and internalization but not for interleukin-13-induced signal transduction through the STAT6 pathway. Kawakami, K., Taguchi, J., Murata, T., Puri, R.K. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  41. Interleukin-13 inhibits interleukin-2-induced proliferation and protects chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells from in vitro apoptosis. Chaouchi, N., Wallon, C., Goujard, C., Tertian, G., Rudent, A., Caput, D., Ferrera, P., Minty, A., Vazquez, A., Delfraissy, J.F. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  42. Human monocytes constitutively express membrane-bound, biologically active, and interferon-gamma-upregulated interleukin-15. Musso, T., Calosso, L., Zucca, M., Millesimo, M., Ravarino, D., Giovarelli, M., Malavasi, F., Ponzi, A.N., Paus, R., Bulfone-Paus, S. Blood (1999) [Pubmed]
  43. Regulation of endothelial and mesothelial cell function by interleukin-13: selective induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and amplification of interleukin-6 production. Sironi, M., Sciacca, F.L., Matteucci, C., Conni, M., Vecchi, A., Bernasconi, S., Minty, A., Caput, D., Ferrara, P., Colotta, F. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  44. Lysophosphatidic acid induces interleukin-13 (IL-13) receptor alpha2 expression and inhibits IL-13 signaling in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Zhao, Y., He, D., Zhao, J., Wang, L., Leff, A.R., Spannhake, E.W., Georas, S., Natarajan, V. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  45. Receptors for interleukin-13 and interleukin-4 are complex and share a novel component that functions in signal transduction. Zurawski, S.M., Vega, F., Huyghe, B., Zurawski, G. EMBO J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  46. Activation of interleukin-13 expression in T cells from HTLV-1-infected individuals and in chronically infected cell lines. Chung, H.K., Young, H.A., Goon, P.K., Heidecker, G., Princler, G.L., Shimozato, O., Taylor, G.P., Bangham, C.R., Derse, D. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  47. Sequential monitoring of peripheral T-lymphocyte cytokine gene expression in the early post renal allograft period. Tan, L., Howell, W.M., Smith, J.L., Sadek, S.A. Transplantation (2001) [Pubmed]
  48. Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (infliximab) selectively down regulates the production of interleukin (IL) 18 but not of IL12 and IL13. Pittoni, V., Bombardieri, M., Spinelli, F.R., Scrivo, R., Alessandri, C., Conti, F., Spadaro, A., Valesini, G. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (2002) [Pubmed]
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