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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Highly potent synthetic polyamides, bisdistamycins, and lexitropsins as inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase.

Alignment of the available human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral DNA termini [U5 and U3 long terminal repeats (LTRs)] shows a high degree of conservation and the presence of a stretch of five or six consecutive adenine and thymine (AT) sequences approximately 10 nucleotides away from each LTR end. A series of AT-selective minor-groove binders, including distamycin and bisdistamycins, bisnetropsins, novel lexitropsins, and the classic monomeric DNA binders Hoechst 33258, 4'-diamino-2-phenylindole, pentamidine, berenil, spermine, and spermidine, were tested for their inhibitory activities against HIV-1 integrase (IN). Although netropsin, distamycin, and all other monomeric DNA binders showed weak activities in the range of 50-200 microM, some of the polyamides, bisdistamycins, and lexitropsins were remarkably active at nanomolar concentrations. Bisdistamycins were 200 times less potent when the conserved AAAAT stretch present in the U5 LTR was replaced with GGGGG, consistent with the preferred binding of these drugs to AT sequences. DNase I footprinting of the U5 LTR further demonstrated the selectivity of these bisdistamycins for the conserved AT sequence. The tested compounds were more potent in Mg+2 than in Mn+2 and inhibited IN50-212 deletion mutant in disintegration assays and the formation of IN/DNA complexes. The lexitropsins also were active against HIV-2 IN. Some of the synthetic polyamides exhibited significant antiviral activity. Taken together, these data suggest that selective targeting of the U5 and U3 ends of the HIV-1 LTRs can inhibit IN function. Polyamides might represent new leads for the development of antiviral agents against acquired immune deficiency syndrome.[1]


  1. Highly potent synthetic polyamides, bisdistamycins, and lexitropsins as inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase. Neamati, N., Mazumder, A., Sunder, S., Owen, J.M., Tandon, M., Lown, J.W., Pommier, Y. Mol. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
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