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Chemical Compound Review

spermidine     N-(3-aminopropyl)butane-1,4- diamine

Synonyms: Spermidin, Lopac-S-2501, Tocris-0959, CHEMBL19612, AG-D-51839, ...
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Disease relevance of spermidine


Psychiatry related information on spermidine


High impact information on spermidine

  • In vitro experiments with a fusion construct using reticulocyte lysates demonstrate polyamine-dependent expression with a frameshift efficiency of 19% at the optimal concentration of spermidine [10].
  • The RNA moieties of ribonuclease P purified from both E. coli (M1 RNA) and B. subtilis (P-RNA) can cleave tRNA precursor molecules in buffers containing either 60 mM Mg2+ or 10 mM Mg2+ plus 1 mM spermidine [11].
  • Transglutaminase was effective in promoting the binding of spermidine to the sperm [12].
  • Three of the six spermidine homologs supported cell growth during a 48-hour incubation in the presence of DFMO, indicating that a two-carbon extension of spermidine structure was tolerated for biological function [13].
  • No more than 15 percent of the spermidine normally present in L1210 cells was required for cell proliferation in the presence of DFMO [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of spermidine


Biological context of spermidine


Anatomical context of spermidine


Associations of spermidine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of spermidine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of spermidine


  1. Association of the folded chromosome with the cell envelope of E. coli: characterization of the proteins at the DNA-membrane attachment site. Portalier, R., Worcel, A. Cell (1976) [Pubmed]
  2. Spermidine nitrosation and gastric cancer. Correa, P., Kokatnur, M.G., Murray, M.L. Lancet (1978) [Pubmed]
  3. Paraquat toxicity is increased in Escherichia coli defective in the synthesis of polyamines. Minton, K.W., Tabor, H., Tabor, C.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Spermidine, an intrinsic component of turnip yellow mosaic virus. Cohen, S.S., Greenberg, M.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Preservation of redox, polyamine, and glycine modulatory domains of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in Alzheimer's disease. Palmer, A.M., Burns, M.A. J. Neurochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Ameliorative effects of histamine on 7-chlorokynurenic acid-induced spatial memory deficits in rats. Nishiga, M., Kamei, C. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. X-linked spermine synthase gene (SMS) defect: the first polyamine deficiency syndrome. Cason, A.L., Ikeguchi, Y., Skinner, C., Wood, T.C., Holden, K.R., Lubs, H.A., Martinez, F., Simensen, R.J., Stevenson, R.E., Pegg, A.E., Schwartz, C.E. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Intra-amygdala spermidine administration improves inhibitory avoidance performance in rats. Rubin, M.A., Stiegemeier, J.A., Volkweis, M.A., Oliveira, D.M., Fenili, A.C., Boemo, R.L., Jurach, A., Mello, C.F. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Spermidine potentiates dizocilpine-induced impairment of learning performance by rats in a 14-unit T-maze. Shimada, A., Spangler, E.L., London, E.D., Ingram, D.K. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Autoregulatory frameshifting in decoding mammalian ornithine decarboxylase antizyme. Matsufuji, S., Matsufuji, T., Miyazaki, Y., Murakami, Y., Atkins, J.F., Gesteland, R.F., Hayashi, S. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. The RNA moiety of ribonuclease P is the catalytic subunit of the enzyme. Guerrier-Takada, C., Gardiner, K., Marsh, T., Pace, N., Altman, S. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Transglutaminase-mediated modifications of the rat sperm surface in vitro. Paonessa, G., Metafora, S., Tajana, G., Abrescia, P., De Santis, A., Gentile, V., Porta, R. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Spermidine requirement for cell proliferation in eukaryotic cells: structural specificity and quantitation. Porter, C.W., Bergeron, R.J. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Altered polyamine profiles in prostatic hyperplasia and in kidney tumors. Dunzendorfer, U., Russell, D.H. Cancer Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. Synthesis and the lethality of bleomycin in bacteria. Cohen, S.S., I, J. Cancer Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. Changes in serum putrescine and spermidine levels following local radiation to hepatoma 3924A of the rat. Russell, D.H., Looney, W.B., Kovacs, C.J., Hopkins, H.A., Dattilo, J.W., Morris, H.P. Cancer Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  17. Escherichia coli mutants completely deficient in adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and in spermidine biosynthesis. Tabor, C.W., Tabor, H., Hafner, E.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Polyamines inhibit the protein kinase 380--catalyzed phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha. Kuroda, Y., Merrick, W.C., Sharma, R.K. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. Uranyl photoprobing of a four-way DNA junction: evidence for specific metal ion binding. Møllegaard, N.E., Murchie, A.I., Lilley, D.M., Nielsen, P.E. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Absolute requirement of spermidine for growth and cell cycle progression of fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe). Chattopadhyay, M.K., Tabor, C.W., Tabor, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. The role of polyamine catabolism in polyamine analogue-induced programmed cell death. Ha, H.C., Woster, P.M., Yager, J.D., Casero, R.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of condensate formation on long-distance radical cation migration in DNA. Das, P., Schuster, G.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Increased polyamines may downregulate interleukin 2 production in rheumatoid arthritis. Flescher, E., Bowlin, T.L., Ballester, A., Houk, R., Talal, N. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Increased spermidine or spermine level is essential for hepatocyte growth factor-induced DNA synthesis in cultured rat hepatocytes. Higaki, I., Matsui-Yuasa, I., Terakura, M., Kinoshita, H., Otani, S. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Identification of hypusine, an unusual amino acid, in a protein from human lymphocytes and of spermidine as its biosynthetic precursor. Park, M.H., Cooper, H.L., Folk, J.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  26. Spermine and spermidine induce intestinal maturation in the rat. Dufour, C., Dandrifosse, G., Forget, P., Vermesse, F., Romain, N., Lepoint, P. Gastroenterology (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Changes in polyamine metabolism of rat liver after administration of D-galactosamine. Favorable effects of putrescine administration on galactosamine-induced hepatic injury. Daikuhara, Y., Tamada, F., Takigawa, M., Takeda, Y., Mori, Y. Gastroenterology (1979) [Pubmed]
  28. Polyamines are inhibitors of gastric acid secretion. Ray, T.K., Nandi, J., Pidhorodeckyj, N., Meng-Ai, Z. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  29. X-ray structure of trypanothione reductase from Crithidia fasciculata at 2.4-A resolution. Kuriyan, J., Kong, X.P., Krishna, T.S., Sweet, R.M., Murgolo, N.J., Field, H., Cerami, A., Henderson, G.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. A polyamine metabolon involving aminopropyl transferase complexes in Arabidopsis. Panicot, M., Minguet, E.G., Ferrando, A., Alcázar, R., Blázquez, M.A., Carbonell, J., Altabella, T., Koncz, C., Tiburcio, A.F. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of spermidine on the in vivo degradation of ornithine decarboxylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gupta, R., Hamasaki-Katagiri, N., White Tabor, C., Tabor, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Spermidine but not spermine is essential for hypusine biosynthesis and growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: spermine is converted to spermidine in vivo by the FMS1-amine oxidase. Chattopadhyay, M.K., Tabor, C.W., Tabor, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Studies on the regulation of ornithine decarboxylase in yeast: effect of deletion in the MEU1 gene. Chattopadhyay, M.K., Tabor, C.W., Tabor, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. The STK2 gene, which encodes a putative Ser/Thr protein kinase, is required for high-affinity spermidine transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kaouass, M., Audette, M., Ramotar, D., Verma, S., De Montigny, D., Gamache, I., Torossian, K., Poulin, R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Implication of SSAT by gene expression and genetic variation in suicide and major depression. Sequeira, A., Gwadry, F.G., Ffrench-Mullen, J.M., Canetti, L., Gingras, Y., Casero, R.A., Rouleau, G., Benkelfat, C., Turecki, G. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2006) [Pubmed]
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