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Chemical Compound Review

Lomidine     4-[5-(4-carbamimidoylphenoxy) pentoxy]benze...

Synonyms: Nebupent, Pentamide, PENTAM, Pentamidin, Pneumopent, ...
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Disease relevance of pentamidine


Psychiatry related information on pentamidine


High impact information on pentamidine


Chemical compound and disease context of pentamidine


Biological context of pentamidine


Anatomical context of pentamidine


Associations of pentamidine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of pentamidine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of pentamidine

  • Pentamidine prophylaxis with a metered-dose inhaler [29].
  • INTERVENTION: Patients were randomly assigned to receive aerosol pentamidine, 60 mg per dose, or placebo, delivered using a hand-held, patient-triggered, ultrasonic nebulizer [30].
  • Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid concentrations of pentamidine ranged between 16.8 +/- 7.3 ng/mL and 149.7 +/- 38.2 ng/mL in the inhaled group and 3.4 +/- 0.2 ng/mL and 10.9 ng/mL in the intravenous group [31].
  • Review of lavage specimen slides suggested that there may be fewer organisms present in patients receiving aerosolized pentamidine [32].
  • The pentamidine-dependent antibody could not be demonstrated by immunoprecipitation using the patient's serum and 125I-labeled normal platelets, although a separate pentamidine-independent antibody was detected by this method [16].


  1. Dapsone-pyrimethamine compared with aerosolized pentamidine as primary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and toxoplasmosis in HIV infection. The PRIO Study Group. Girard, P.M., Landman, R., Gaudebout, C., Olivares, R., Saimot, A.G., Jelazko, P., Gaudebout, C., Certain, A., Boué, F., Bouvet, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. A controlled trial of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or aerosolized pentamidine for secondary prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 021. Hardy, W.D., Feinberg, J., Finkelstein, D.M., Power, M.E., He, W., Kaczka, C., Frame, P.T., Holmes, M., Waskin, H., Fass, R.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Aerosolized pentamidine for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. The San Francisco community prophylaxis trial. Leoung, G.S., Feigal, D.W., Montgomery, A.B., Corkery, K., Wardlaw, L., Adams, M., Busch, D., Gordon, S., Jacobson, M.A., Volberding, P.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Pneumocystitis carinii choroiditis in patients receiving inhaled pentamidine. Sneed, S.R., Blodi, C.F., Berger, B.B., Speights, J.W., Folk, J.C., Weingeist, T.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Hyperamylasemia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Murthy, U.K., DeGregorio, F., Oates, R.P., Blair, D.C. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Aerosolized pentamidine and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: patient compliance and outcomes. Bjornson, D.C., Oster, C.N., Cortese, L.M., Nelson, B.A. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Comparison of atovaquone (566C80) with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to treat Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS. Hughes, W., Leoung, G., Kramer, F., Bozzette, S.A., Safrin, S., Frame, P., Clumeck, N., Masur, H., Lancaster, D., Chan, C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. A controlled study of inhaled pentamidine for primary prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Hirschel, B., Lazzarin, A., Chopard, P., Opravil, M., Furrer, H.J., Rüttimann, S., Vernazza, P., Chave, J.P., Ancarani, F., Gabriel, V. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Interaction between aromatic diamidines and nucleic acids: possible implications for chemotherapy. Makulu, D.R., Waalkes, T.P. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1975) [Pubmed]
  10. Prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia relapse by pentamidine aerosol in zidovudine-treated AIDS patients. Girard, P.M., Landman, R., Gaudebout, C., Lepretre, A., Lottin, P., Michon, C., De Truchis, P., Matheron, S., Camus, F., Farinotti, R. Lancet (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Oral atovaquone compared with intravenous pentamidine for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS. Atovaquone Study Group. Dohn, M.N., Weinberg, W.G., Torres, R.A., Follansbee, S.E., Caldwell, P.T., Scott, J.D., Gathe, J.C., Haghighat, D.P., Sampson, J.H., Spotkov, J., Deresinski, S.C., Meyer, R.D., Lancaster, D.J. Ann. Intern. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Response of babesiosis to pentamidine therapy. Francioli, P.B., Keithly, J.S., Jones, T.C., Brandstetter, R.D., Wolf, D.J. Ann. Intern. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. A mechanism for pentamidine-induced hyperkalemia: inhibition of distal nephron sodium transport. Kleyman, T.R., Roberts, C., Ling, B.N. Ann. Intern. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Reversible bronchoconstriction with nebulised pentamidine. Smith, D.E., Herd, D., Gazzard, B.G. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Aerosolised pentamidine and public health. McDiarmid, M.A., Jacobson-Kram, D. Lancet (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Severe thrombocytopenia in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient associated with pentamidine-dependent antibodies specific for glycoprotein IIb/IIIa. Christie, D.J., Sauro, S.C., Cavanaugh, A.L., Kaplan, M.E. Blood (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Apoptotic death in Leishmania donovani promastigotes in response to respiratory chain inhibition: complex II inhibition results in increased pentamidine cytotoxicity. Mehta, A., Shaha, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Pentamidine-associated fatal acute pancreatitis. Zuger, A., Wolf, B.Z., el-Sadr, W., Simberkoff, M.S., Rahal, J.J. JAMA (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Bronchoconstriction, nebulised pentamidine, and mast cells. Ong, E.L., Hanley, S.P., Mandal, B.K. Lancet (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Pentamidine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist and is neuroprotective in vitro. Reynolds, I.J., Aizenman, E. J. Neurosci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Pentamidine isethionate reduces Ia expression and antigen presentation by Langerhans cells and inhibits the contact hypersensitivity reaction. Blaylock, B.L., Kouchi, Y., Comment, C.E., Corsini, E., Rosenthal, G.J., Luster, M.I. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Diabetes mellitus following pentamidine-induced hypoglycemia in humans. Bouchard, P., Sai, P., Reach, G., Caubarrère, I., Ganeval, D., Assan, R. Diabetes (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. Human babesiosis. Clinical and therapeutic considerations. Gombert, M.E., Goldstein, E.J., Benach, J.L., Tenenbaum, M.J., Grunwaldt, E., Kaplan, M.H., Eveland, L.K. JAMA (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Amphotericin versus pentamidine in antimony-unresponsive kala-azar. Mishra, M., Biswas, U.K., Jha, D.N., Khan, A.B. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Cost-effectiveness of prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with Wegner's granulomatosis undergoing immunosuppressive therapy. Chung, J.B., Armstrong, K., Schwartz, J.S., Albert, D. Arthritis Rheum. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Mutations affecting a yeast mitochondrial inner membrane protein, pnt1p, block export of a mitochondrially synthesized fusion protein from the matrix. He, S., Fox, T.D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. The inhibitory effect of pentamidine on the production of chemotactic cytokines by in vitro stimulated human blood cells. Van Wauwe, J., Aerts, F., Van Genechten, H., Blockx, H., Deleersnijder, W., Walter, H. Inflamm. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Pentamidine-induced long QT syndrome and block of hERG trafficking. Kuryshev, Y.A., Ficker, E., Wang, L., Hawryluk, P., Dennis, A.T., Wible, B.A., Brown, A.M., Kang, J., Chen, X.L., Sawamura, K., Reynolds, W., Rampe, D. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Pentamidine prophylaxis with a metered-dose inhaler. Miller, R.F., Buckland, J.A., Pang, M., Qiu, J., Taylor, K.M. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Aerosol pentamidine for secondary prophylaxis of AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. A randomized, placebo-controlled study. Montaner, J.S., Lawson, L.M., Gervais, A., Hyland, R.H., Chan, C.K., Falutz, J.M., Renzi, P.M., MacFadden, D., Rachlis, A.R., Fong, I.W. Ann. Intern. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Inhaled or reduced-dose intravenous pentamidine for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. A pilot study. Conte, J.E., Hollander, H., Golden, J.A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  32. Aerosolized pentamidine: effect on diagnosis and presentation of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Jules-Elysee, K.M., Stover, D.E., Zaman, M.B., Bernard, E.M., White, D.A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
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