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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Use of DNA repair-deficient XPA transgenic mice in short-term carcinogenicity testing.

At present (putative) human carcinogens are identified via epidemiological studies and testing using the chronic 2-yr rodent bioassay. Both methods have severe limitations in that they are slow, insensitive, expensive, and are also hampered by many uncertainties. The development of methods to modify specific genes in the mammalian genome has provided promising new tools for use in identifying carcinogens and characterizing their (qualitative) risk. Several transgenic mouse lines are currently under study to test their possible use in short-term carcinogenicity testing. One such candidate alternative transgenic model is the XPA knock-out mouse. These mice have an almost complete deficiency in DNA nucleotide excision repair (NER). Nevertheless, XPA-deficient mice are viable and have a background of a low incidence of spontaneous development of cancers. Approximately 15% of the mice develop hepatocellular adenomas (only after 1.5 yr). After treatment with ultraviolet-B radiation or 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, the XPA-deficient mice developed squamous cell carcinomas and papillomas, respectively, on their skin. Oral treatment of XPA-deficient mice with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP) resulted in lymphomas (B[a]P), liver and bladder tumors (2-AAF), and intestinal adenomas plus lymphomas (PhIP). These results look encouraging, but it should be noted that the compounds and agents tested thus far have all been substrate for nucleotide excision repair. Animal studies with different genotoxic or nongenotoxic compounds, as organized for instance within the framework of the International Life Sciences Institute/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute program, are needed to further evaluate the suitability of the XPA model for short-term carcinogenicity testing.[1]


  1. Use of DNA repair-deficient XPA transgenic mice in short-term carcinogenicity testing. van Steeg, H., Klein, H., Beems, R.B., van Kreijl, C.F. Toxicologic pathology. (1998) [Pubmed]
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