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Chemical Compound Review

Calypso     [[3-[(6-chloropyridin-3...

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Disease relevance of Calypso

  • Athila4 of Arabidopsis and Calypso of soybean define a lineage of endogenous plant retroviruses [1].
  • Target localization and real-time tracking using the Calypso 4D localization system in patients with localized prostate cancer [2].
  • An octaploid (Fragaria x ananassa cv. Calypso) genotype of strawberry was transformed with an antisense chalcone synthase (CHS) gene construct using a ripening related CHS cDNA from Fragaria x ananassa cv. Elsanta under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter via Agrobacterium tumefaciens [3].
  • The potential synergistic enhancement of the toxicity of thiacloprid to honeybees when co-applied with such fungicides was therefore studied under laboratory and semi-field conditions [4].

High impact information on Calypso

  • Gag and Pol are encoded on a single open reading frame (ORF) of 1801 (Calypso) and 1911 (Athila4) amino acids [1].
  • Consensus Calypso and Athila4 elements are 12-14 kb in length and have long terminal repeats of 1.3-1.8 kb [1].
  • Imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and their imine analogs are not antinociceptive agents in mice by abdominal constriction and hot plate analgesic tests [5].
  • We found that imidacloprid (IMI) (one of the most important insecticides) and thiacloprid (THIA) increased [(3)H]nicotine binding levels (up-regulation of the alpha 4 beta 2 AChRs) by five- to eightfold with EC50s of approximately 70,000 and 19,000 nM, respectively, compared with 760 nM for (-)-nicotine [6].
  • Efficient levels of regeneration--those needed to carry out transformation experiments--with the cultivars Calypso, Pegasus, Bolero, Tango and Emily were achieved with leaf discs, petioles, roots and stipules [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of Calypso


Biological context of Calypso


Associations of Calypso with other chemical compounds

  • The ELISA exhibited satisfactory sensitivity (I (50) 0.6 ng/g; limit of detection 0.053 ng/g) and a high selectivity for acetamiprid versus other neonicotinoid analogs (thiacloprid amide) [9].
  • We evaluated various doses of the systemic insecticides azadirachtin, emamectin benzoate, imidacloprid, and thiacloprid for control of A. glabripennis in naturally infested elms (Ulmus spp.), poplars (Populus spp.), and willows (Salix spp. ) in China between 2000 and 2002 [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Calypso

  • PURPOSE: The Calypso 4D Localization System is being developed to provide accurate, precise, objective, and continuous target localization during radiotherapy [2].


  1. Athila4 of Arabidopsis and Calypso of soybean define a lineage of endogenous plant retroviruses. Wright, D.A., Voytas, D.F. Genome Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Target localization and real-time tracking using the Calypso 4D localization system in patients with localized prostate cancer. Willoughby, T.R., Kupelian, P.A., Pouliot, J., Shinohara, K., Aubin, M., Roach, M., Skrumeda, L.L., Balter, J.M., Litzenberg, D.W., Hadley, S.W., Wei, J.T., Sandler, H.M. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Molecular characterization of a stable antisense chalcone synthase phenotype in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). Lunkenbein, S., Coiner, H., de Vos, C.H., Schaart, J.G., Boone, M.J., Krens, F.A., Schwab, W., Salentijn, E.M. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Field relevance of a synergistic effect observed in the laboratory between an EBI fungicide and a chloronicotinyl insecticide in the honeybee (Apis mellifera L, Hymenoptera). Schmuck, R., Stadler, T., Schmidt, H.W. Pest Manag. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Analgesic and toxic effects of neonicotinoid insecticides in mice. Tomizawa, M., Cowan, A., Casida, J.E. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and their imine derivatives up-regulate the alpha 4 beta 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in M10 cells. Tomizawa, M., Casida, J.E. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Adventitious shoot regeneration from seven commercial strawberry cultivars (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) using a range of explant types. Passey, A.J., Barrett, K.J., James, D.J. Plant Cell Rep. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Use of residue profile analysis to identify modes of insecticide activity contributing to control of plum curculio in apples. Wise, J.C., Coombs, A.B., Vandervoort, L.C., Gut, L.J., Hoffmann, E.J., Whalon, M.E. J. Econ. Entomol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Immunoassay for acetamiprid detection: application to residue analysis and comparison with liquid chromatography. Watanabe, E., Miyake, S., Baba, K., Eun, H., Endo, S. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Field evaluations of systemic insecticides for control of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in China. Poland, T.M., Haack, R.A., Petrice, T.R., Miller, D.L., Bauer, L.S., Gao, R. J. Econ. Entomol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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